Topics: Telephone, Mobile phone, Internet Pages: 7 (1666 words) Published: March 25, 2014
Components of Telecommunication Networks

Telecommunications Networks consist of components that transfer voice and data over the same system, and Melissa needs to understand the components integral to the system. She has found some key words on which she can search. POTS Local Loop

The Plain Old Telephone Service (POTS) is a simple network that connects a house to the Central Office of the Telephone Company through a Local Loop. The Local Loop consists of twisted pair cables with a maximum length of three miles.

Digital Subscriber Line (DSL) Local Loop
The DSL System also includes a Local Loop of Twisted Pair Cable that is primarily used to connect computers and other digital equipment as well as telephones. The maximum length of this loop is 11 miles.

Interexchange Hierarchy
A telephone network is basically a lot of local systems interconnected to form one large system. The local exchange serves a group of subscribers (customers) in a local area by physically connecting them with a pair of copper wires. Local exchange carriers (LEC) are local telephone companies that provide service along with other LECs within a designated geographical area. The POP is where the LEC meets the long distance or interexchange carrier (IXC).

Network Topology
The telecommunications network is divided into specific topologies, or segments, to handle each aspect of the information flow depending on the distance from the consumer and the purpose of the information flow. These topologies or segments are 1. Access networks

2. Regional/metro networks

3. Core/long-haul networks

4. Ocean networks

Regional Bell Operating Companies (RBOCs)

As a result of a suit by the U.S. government challenging their monopoly, AT&T divested its local exchange carriers into seven “baby Bells,” or RBOCs, in 1984. These service providers provide most of the fixed-line, wireless, and data services in the United States. A big advantage of the RBOC telecommunications service providers, as opposed to the “cable TV” multiple-system operator (MSO) companies, is that they offer mobile phone-wireless service.

Multiple System Operator (MSO)
MSOs are basically cable TV companies (CATV) that offer television service to consumers using radio frequency over HFC (hybrid fiber copper) and RFoG (radio frequency over glass) networks. Well-known MSOs in the United States are Time Warner Cable, Cablevision, Comcast, Charter Communications, and Cox Communications. Components of Wireless Communication Networks

Network communications can occur through Cable TV, wireless, or through cloud computing. These methodologies can have cable or may be completely wireless. To understand more about wireless communication, Melissa researches the following terms. Click on each to learn more.

Cable TV Transmission Systems
A typical cable TV system (CATV) uses a combination of copper cabling, fiber-optic cabling, and wireless technology to bring programming to the consumer. To access the Internet over a copper coaxial network typically requires a cable modem which converts the RF signals on the coaxial cable into digital signals for the computer.

Cellular Communication Systems
When a cell phone is used in a mobile application, it will communicate with different cell towers as it moves throughout that geographical area. Cellular communication can be used for many data applications other than just carrying on a conversation. 4G networks offer 10 or more times the data transmission rate of a 3G network.

Cloud Computing
Cloud computing is a way to increase the capabilities of a device or add new capabilities or services without making any hardware changes to the device. Some of the key cloud computing services being offered today address data storage, computation, and software. Data storage services store data on virtual servers hosted by third parties instead of the data being stored locally in the data center of a particular business....
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