Suggest why many countries find El Niño weather anomalies very challenging.(10)Countries in the Monsoon climatic region of SE & S Asia depend on the rains that come with the precision of Calender dates (due to the precise dates of Sun's seasonal shift as per Calender dates). It is essential for their agriculture, where countries with huge populations have to feed them, made possible with assured crops. Any variation in timing & rainfall quantum affects their crop production adversely. It also leads to unforeseen flooding caused by excessive rains (other environmental factors like soil erosion aiding it) that washes out the crops. Monsoon is created by the Sea surface temperature variation (Pacific Ocean largely) as per Calender dates. El Nino refers to the unusual, unseasonal warming of the equatorial currents of the Pacific Ocean that upsets Monsoon. We all know how huge is this Ocean and how very broad (about 10000 miles) it is at its Equator; its sheer volume of water absorbs the solar heat energy and acts like an engine for the Monsoon. It is a challenge to these countries. Modellig it mathematically (an exercise in atmospheric Physics) is one of the most complicated problems with an innumerable set of parametrs & that is a challenge. India bought the first 'Cray' Super-Computer for its meteorological department that can give accuarte predictio(a) Suggest why many countries find El Niño weather anomalies very challenging.(10)
El Nino is referring to the dramatic change that occurs in the walker circulation cell and in other areas but I am going to focus on this specific area, where the usually south-easterly trade winds going from west of South America to Australia and Indonesia across the Pacific Ocean reverse or severely weaken. This occurs usually every 3-7 years and can last between 12-18 months. During an El Nino the warm sea in the western pacific migrate towards the South American coast because they are being dragged across by the winds. This stops...
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