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Study of Awareness of Value-Added Services (Vas) & Its Impact on Telecom Industry.

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Study of Awareness of Value-Added Services (Vas) & Its Impact on Telecom Industry.

The Indian Telecom growth story seems to be accelerating without brakes. But then, with 791 million mobile subscribers there is no reason to doubt the growing telecom market in India. The interesting thing in the Indian telecom market is that the traditional revenue sources for the operators- voice & SMS (Short Message Service) are at rock bottom. The subscriber churn as a result of Mobile Number Portability has also added to the worries of the operators. Operators are betting on Value added services (VAS) as the next big opportunity to sustain and succeed in the market.
With the increasing monthly additions in subscribership, Telecom Regulatory Authority of India (TRAI) reports that there are 601 Mn mobile subscribers in India as of April 2010. Considering that the metropolitan and large urban cities have reached a high level of penetration, Tier I & II cities as well as rural towns seem to be next beneficiaries of this technology. Due to this duality, network providers and other industry stakeholders have to provide advanced services to the existing matured users as well as ensure that financial challenged sectors are provided mobile services at affordable costs. Consequently, Mobile Value Added Services (MVAS) which comprise advanced as well as basic services will need to be provided to the divergent mobile subscribers.
The revenue through MVAS has been growing in the past years and by the estimates in the study, it is INR 11,680 Crores in size. Traditional MVAS like P2P (Person to Person) SMS and Caller Ring Back Tones (CRBT) continue to be substantial provider of these revenues. These basic services are expected to be large contributors. The stakeholders, however, are not able to garner higher revenues from value added services due to limitations in technological infrastructural platform. Further, in keeping up with the competition the call rates have been dropping, resulting into low overall Average Revenue per User (ARPU). With the expectations of advantages that 3G could provide and the technological innovations, the anticipations towards improved service delivery abound.
In order to ensure a high growth in MVAS revenue it is important to understand how much aware are the customers about the mobile value-added services, it is also necessary that newer avenues are explored to provide user-centric content and application services. Such as forecasting is not unfounded as there are innovative offerings available for users. However, the need is for identifying specific niche segments that require certain specialized delivery. These segments could be among the urban or non-urban users. In addition to such improved delivery, it could serve the industry well, if a user-centric approach is adopted in providing services that are technology-agnostic. Long term growth will be ensured if detailed learning’s from user experiences are examined continuously in providing innovative services.
PROJECT TITLE: Study of awareness of value-added services (VAS) & its impact on telecom industry.
• To understand how much aware are our subscribers about the value-added services (VAS) and to know consumer needs and wants and their experience of VAS.
• To know whether subscribers are ready for 3G, Mobile advertizing and Mobile apps.
• To understand the mobile VAS market growth and reaching the estimates that has been forecasted.
To understand the Value-added services comprising of:-
• SMS, Video Calls, MMS and Email.
• Information VAS comprising of news and alert based services.
• Entertainment VAS comprising of caller tunes as it is expected to be the most profitable VAS segment in recent years.
• Regional entertainment based VAS services as it is expected to be in big demand and VAS providers would need to focus on localization and multi-lingual capabilities.

This topic “Study of awareness of value-added services (VAS) & its impact on Telecom Industry” was chosen because telecom Industry is one of the booming industries in India, and there is a good future of mobile value-added services (MVAS) in India. HT Mobile Solutions Ltd is one of the leading providers of mobile services and it provides a good platform for learning MVAS.
LOCATION: Airoli (Navi Mumbai)
DURATION: The duration of this project was from 16th May 2011 to 18th July 2011(55 Days)
RESULT: It was found that 45% of the mobile users are not aware of the value-added services and they are not ready to opt for third generation (3G) services also, as they are not aware of the benefits of value-added services and the intricacies of these services.


Mobility and virtualization are two trends that are changing the way people can access information while on the move. People are learning that mobile phones can be used for more than just making phone calls. Already now, mobile phone users can access a variety of useful value-added services (VAS) for data. The future of telecommunications also promises diversified usage of mobile phones. Innovation of future mobile application is limited more by imagination than by technology.
As we are just starting to understand the possibilities of VAS we need to investigate the market to find out the true extent and nature of demand of mobile VAS. The more that is known about what end users demand the better operators will be able to meet those demands now and in the future.
As average revenue per user (ARPU) declines, the challenge for operators is to increase revenues by differentiating their offerings and develop alternatives revenue streams by offering more value-added services to the existing subscribers.
The decrease in average revenue can also be attributed to the structure of the Indian Mobility Market which is largely prepaid. This means that most of the subscribers added are from the bottom of pyramid with low usage resulting in low ARPU.
In terms of market share, 92% of the subscriber’s base in India is on Pre-paid connection, with the remaining 8% on post-paid subscriptions. This has also given rise to opportunities for generating increased revenue, through exploring potential value-added services (MVAS) like subscription packs of news, alerts etc and more exclusive roaming services tailored to pre-paid subscribers. Global System for Mobile Communication (GSM) and Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) are the two competing infrastructures set up by cellular network providers across the globe. In most of the countries GSM is dominant technology for mobile communication – GSM Association (GSMA) claims that, globally, the technology is being used by more than 80% of the mobile subscribers. In India, the distribution has followed a similar trend wherein 20% of the subscribers are on the CDMA networks. While the providers of these competing technologies were distinct in past, the boundaries have blurred. The market characteristics of these technologies, however, have remained distinct since the introduction. Average Revenue per User (ARPU), as an example, is and has been much lower in case of CDMA than GSM.
Worldwide wireless ARPU have been in decline. As per recent report, it has been decreased. The ARPU has been falling and stood at Rs. 144 for GSM networks and Rs. 82 for CDMA networks as of December 2010. The main reasons for low ARPUs for the mobile operators are increasing competition from new entrants, introduction of newer billing schemes such as per-second billing and the focus towards rural markets. Examining ARPU in isolation is not necessarily an ironclad investigation. Although lower ARPU does indicate decrease in revenue for network operators, it is hardly a sole cause for operators unable to build returns on its investments. There are also other related phenomenon’s that need examination to arrive at a holistic picture of falling revenues or returns.
Further, newer schemes by the network operators have allowed for arbitrage opportunities among the urban subscribers leading to reduction in revenue for the incumbent operators.
For instance, Per-Second Billing, introduced by Tata Docomo, was followed by almost all the mobile operators. Call rates dropped from Re. 1 per minute just 2 years back to 1 paisa per Second- resulting in round of price wars. Mobile users benefited the most, however, it is estimated that mobile operators end up losing 15-18% revenues as a result.
Instead of evaluating patterns in ARPU or MoU (Minutes of Usage), growth of average revenue or MoU per “real” user might be useful indicator. To arrive at this metric, it is important to relate the metrics to overall connections and to the people using them. It would be more fitting to determine Average Connections per User (ACPU) that exists among the mobile subscribers and recalibrate “real” ARPU or MoU.
The mobile industry in India is predominantly a pre-paid market. With nearly 95% of mobile subscription being pre-paid across network technologies, there seems limited potential in increasing revenue with the current purchase behavior among existing MVAS users. While the blended APRUs are on the continuous decline, it is more evident among pre-paid subscribers.

Pre-Paid Subscribers Post-Paid Subscribers
GSM 95% 5%
CDMA 94% 6%

Pre-paid mobile subscription is dominant in Indian Market due to the advantages it offers to the users. The subscription model is quickly available, requires minimal documentation, enables faster activation of services and provides control to customers in deciding their expenses towards mobile usage. As the mobile usage penetrates among “bottom-of-pyramid” value driven users, there is high likelihood of increase in pre-paid subscription. For service providers, it also points towards providing services based on “pay-as-you-go” or “sachet” pricing.

VAS: A source of revenue

For Mobile Operator:
Continuously declining ARPU (Average Revenue per User) is a major concern for mobile operators. Reduction in call rates has been reached a stage where it is difficult to sustain. Decreasing call rates has also been resulted in decreasing ARPU for the mobile operator, and thus it initiates the need for VAS as a revenue tool for mobile operator. To maintain a healthy growth, the operator needs to come up with innovations that will result in revenue generation. These innovations in plans and offerings can only be offered through VAS. Also, mobile operators can differentiate themselves only on the basis of VAS and no more on the basis of price.
For a mobile Subscriber:
For a subscriber, mobile is not just a device to communicate, it’s a multipurpose tool that enables users to communicate as well as provides information to them. This evolution from mere substitute to telephone to “All in one” device leads to higher usage of VAS. Voice calls as well as P2P SMS (conventionally considered a VAS) is more like a commodity. VAS is something which enables them to do lot more than mere communication.
Mobile Value Added Services: Characteristics & Categories
Mobile Value Added Services (MVAS) does not constitute as a basic service offered to a subscriber. It is provided to subscriber as an add-on service, for which the operator charges a premium. MVAS is offered to add “value” to subscriber and can also be stated as services beyond voice communication which are offered by mobile operators to their subscribers at premium. Commonly, it could be defined as:
“Services that are not part of the basic voice offer and availed separately by the end user. They are used as a tool for differentiation and allow mobile operators to develop another stream of revenue.”
Indian mobile VAS Industry has evolved from P2P SMS to mobile TV over the past decade. It is evident from the illustration below that as mobile industry in India evolved over the decade, more innovative and complex VAS entered the market. These services followed the trend Entertainment VAS – Information VAS – mCommerce.
Mobile VAS industry in India is about to enter its second decade where mobile TV, video on demand and user generated content (UGC) are expected to be driving VAS.
Indian mobile industry when started was primarily seen as substitute to conventional landline phones. It was considered as a mode of communication facilitating “on the move” to stay connected with others. It was high premium services, affordable to only few.
By early 2000, P2P SMS was the only value added service being offered to as well as used by mobile subscribers. Slowly other VAS such as wallpaper and graphic downloads entered the market and VAS started getting momentum.
By 2003-04, mobile industry in India slowly started transforming from a premium offering to mass market. CDMA launches across various circles kicked off early stages of price war. Around same period value added services also witnessed large number of new services as well as innovative plans and pricing. However VAS offerings till mid 2003-04 were primarily basic application and focused on entertainment VAS.
It was only by middle of the first decade when high order VAS such as ringtones, voting/Contest participation, arrived. Both ringtones and contest participation got large subscribers. TV shows such as KBC (Kaun Banega Croreapati) and Indian Idol, one of the most famous shows at that time on Indian television saw large number of viewers participating in SMS contests. It was the same time Indian wireless subscribers crossed 50Mn mark.
By 2007-08, SMS started becoming a commodity among urban users. High end VAS such as Caller Ring Back Tone (CRBT), mobile internet and mCommerce slowly started getting momentum in urban circles. On the other side, rural subscribers were getting added in large numbers who were new entrants, for them entertainment VAS continued to be the main services.
Today, in year 2011, we are witnessing new offerings such as Mobile TV, social mobile entering the Mobile VAS. Similarly Mobile Apps – potentially the next big thing in VAS is already witnessing large push from supply side.
VAS Usage

VAS Categories:

The current Mobile industry is estimated at Rs.5780 crore by end June 2011 and is estimated to grow steadily at 70% over next two years to touch Rs.9760 Crores by end June 2012 and Rs.16520 Crores by the end of June 2013.
The current MVAS market contribution of VAS is given below:-

The current MVAS market (as of June 2011) is Rs.5780 Crores. P2P SMS contributes Rs.2140 Crores to the MVAS market and this goes only to the operators (the balance Rs.3640 Crores is divided between the different stakeholders including the operators.). Rs 2312 Crores come from CRBT/RT while the balance Rs 1329 Crores is divided amongst the other services. MVAS currently contributes around 9% to the operator’s revenue. It is expected to increase to 10.4% in the next 1 year and 12% by the end of 2013.

Like human beings, products also have a life-cycle. From birth to death, human beings pass through various stages, e.g. birth, growth, maturity, death. A similar life cycle is seen in the case of product, the concept is called as “Product Life Cycle”. Product life cycle has to do with the life of a product in the market with respect to commercial cost and sales measures. It says that there are four stages through which the product passes i.e.
1. Introduction Stage
2. Growth Stage
3. Maturity Stage
4. Decline Stage
Introduction Stage: At this stage, there may not be ready market for the product, sales are low. Demand has to be created and developed. Customers have to be promted to try out the product. One of the crucial decisions to be taken in this stage is the pricing strategy to be adapted.
Growth Stage: Demand for the product increases and size of the market grows. The pioneer has to stay ahead of his competitor and persuade the customer to prefer his brand. Companies are forced to shift towards competition-oriented pricing, because the total market is being shared by many players.
Talking about mobile value-added services, it can be said that MVAS is in growth stage, the demand for the Value-added Services are increasing day by day, and even the service providers are struggling very hard to stay ahead of their competitors and every service provider is persuading the subscribers to prefer their services, whether it is Reliance, or Airtel, or say Idea, every player is facing a tough competition. Companies are trying to make services at economical prices, as customers are not ready to spend more money on VAS.
Making a product is not enough, how we promote that product and make our customer aware is also important because the market’s reaction to the product, largely decides when one stage in the life cycle will taper off and the next set in. This only means that each stage of the product life cycle is an outcome of market behavior. So here comes “Promotion”. It deals with how potential customers will be told about the product, what the message will be, when and where it will be delivered and with what inducements to buy. It has four distinct elements: advertising, public relations, personal selling and sales promotion, which encourages the customer to purchase the particular brand over another, to purchase it more often and to purchase it in larger quantities.
Though VAS has emerged into many new forms i.e. from entertainment VAS, it has now developed Information VAS, mCommerce and the newest is the Mobile Apps, but still 70% of the subscribers are not aware of the Value-added services provided by their operators. The reason for this is the sales promotion schemes and the media planning. Most of the times we find that people are not aware of the different services like eBook reader, mobile banking or say bill paying services and though the service providers are spending a huge amount of money on the promotions and advertisement, the subscribers are unable to understand the main concept and thus it results into low usage of VAS.
Study of consumer behavior also plays an important role in sales of our product, as it helps us to understand what are the needs and expectations of our customer. Consumer behavior is the behavior that consumers display in searching for, purchasing, using, evaluating and disposing of products/services that they expect will satisfy their needs. It focuses on how individual consumers & families or households make decisions to spend their available resources (time, money, effort).
The consumer behavior also is changing, the urban users are the mature users and they think mobile as a multi-purpose gadget - a communication device, entertainment tool & utility tool and at the same time rural users are relatively new, less matured. Service providers can target on the rural segment, as in the matter of time even the rural users will also demand high end value-added services.


COMPANY NAME: Hindustan Times Mobile Solutions Ltd
ABOUT THE COMPANY: HT Mobile is a leading provider of mobile marketing and advertising technology and solutions that enable brands, advertising agencies, mobile operators, and media to implement highly targeted, interactive and measurable campaigns by communicating with and engaging consumer via their mobile devices. One of the key focus areas for HT Mobile is the telecom and mobile platform, where it is one of the significant players in the market with its 'Value Added Service ' (VAS) offerings. The mobile business also known as 54242 (SMS code) was amongst the first in India to set up SMS-based services. The launches made last year include WAP (Web Application Portal) services and voice-based VAS service. These services are now available to users across India on both GSM and CDMA networks. The list of VAS offerings includes text-based information services, downloadable ringtones, wallpapers, games, and news, cricket, astrology and chat services.
Through its brand building exercise “54242” has established itself as the national reference point for mobile offerings on news, sports, finance, entertainment etc.
The mobile services include off-deck carrier agnostic connectivity for interactive SMS & Voice response along with permission based SMS broadcasts & alerts. This includes service creation, operations and mobile marketing solutions for brands and enterprises.
HT Mobile simplifies complexity and addresses the unique needs of multiple groups, allowing them to manage the mobile marketing and advertising process from start to finish.

Operators Agencies & Brands Media Groups
1. Operators:
Mobile Marketing, Advertising and Brand Loyalty
Content Management and Rendering Platforms
Customer Acquisition and Self Service Solutions

2. Agencies & Brands:
Mobile Marketing Solutions
Mobile Advertising Solutions
Scalable Planning, Management, and Monitoring of Mobile Campaigns

3. Media Groups:
Integrated Mobile Marketing and Advertising (TV, Print, Internet)
Content Delivery through Mobile
Customer Base Monetization through Mobile

Internet businesses of HT Media incorporated under Firefly e-ventures; operate leading web portals and in the general and business news categories respectively. The company 's job portal which has received high appreciation from consumers and industry for its innovative design and usability crossed 5 million registrations. - a social networking site is growing phenomenally. The company has recently launched an education portal aimed at students passing out of school and college to help them take the right decision about their higher education.

A rich heritage to live up to! Organizational values are the foundation stones on which the organization’s image is built. These help the company realize its organizational goals and in turn transform lives. These values are intended to infuse an infectious energy, professionalism and a sense of true empowerment to the workplace.
The solid edifice on which HT Media stands tall today was built on high ideals and values. The company has its roots in the independence movement in the first half of the twentieth century, a cause to empower the nation. We are adaptive to the changing times, while remaining steadfast to the values rooted in our culture.
Our values drive us towards our goals of expansion, diversification and excellence. These values define our philosophy of operations, guide our important decisions and determine our commitment and achievement.
The values personified by HT Media are:
Courage: To encourage the ability that meets opposition with skill, competence and fortitude.
Responsibility: Be accountable for results in line with the company’s objectives, strategies and values.
Empowerment: Support our people and give them the freedom to perform and to provide our readers with information to influence their environment.
Continuous Self Renewal: Determination to constantly re-examine and re-invent ourselves for further innovation and creativity.
People Centric: People are our greatest asset. We invest in them expect a lot and know that the rest will follow.
VISION: HT Media strives to be a visionary organization and not an organization with a vision. In our endeavor to have a shared understanding, alignment and commitment, we have derived our company’s vision that sets the course and empowers people to take action.

Management think-tank is our key strength:
The Board of Directors and Management of HT Media comprises eminent persons from diverse professional fields, who bring with them vast professional experience to the company.
A rich mix of veterans in media and top leaders from non-media sectors, from both India and abroad, HT Media’s Management team reflects the company 's desire to be the best by leveraging diverse strengths. The management team comprises people from varied verticals such as media, FMCG, telecom, automobiles, each of whom add fresh perspective to the rich experience of media industry stalwarts. This rich talent pool is ably assisted by our Global Think Tank.
ORGANISATIONAL CHART: PRODUCTS/SERVICES: Mobile Marketing Services, Mobile Applications for various phones, Mobile Advertising, SMS Short Codes WAP sites, Voice Services like OBD IBD IVRS, Social Media Loyalty Campaigns, QR Codes, SMS Applications & integrations ,Mobile Gaming Applications, CRBT Services, Ring Tone Services ,Premium billing Services, Subscription Services.
• ACL Wireless Ltd
• Active Media Technology
• Webduniya
• India Times
• Mobile2win
• Yahoo
• Hungama
• Mauj
• Rediff
In India: Pune, Mumbai, Noida, Kolkata, Bangalore, Chennai, Delhi, Gurgaon & Hyderabad.
Global Coverage: San Francisco, Boston, New York, London, Paris, Munich, Dubai, Sydney, Beijing, Athens & Sofia.
 September 26, 1924: This date marked the august beginnings of Hindustan Times with Mahatma Gandhi, the Father of the Nation inaugurating the newspaper.
 1927: Hindustan Times, was reborn as Hindustan Times Ltd., a limited liability company.
 1936: The Hindi daily Hindustan was launched, which remains the dominant newspaper in the core Hindi belt of northern India.
 1937: Devdas Gandhi was appointed the Managing Editor of the newspaper and remained the managing editor till his death in 1957.
 1942: The Hindustan Times was one of the few newspapers that stopped publishing the newspaper for four and a half months as it refused to accept the British imposition of censorship on all newspapers.
 1947: The year India gained its freedom was also the year Hindustan Times attained the status of being the dominant newspaper in Delhi.
 1957: The newspaper circulation grew from 58,693 copies to 144,287 in 1970 after KK Birla took over the mantle from GD Birla.
 1960: The Hindi literary magazine Kadambini was launched.
 1964: The group started actively targeting the youth of India and launched the Nandan magazine.
 1991: At the start of liberalization of India, Hindustan Times moved to becoming an autonomous power center in a mature democracy.
 1999: The Hindustan Times celebrated its platinum anniversary.
 2000: With a focus on localization, five new editions for Calcutta, Bhopal, Ranchi, Chandigarh and Jaipur were launched.
 2003: The media business of was de-merged and incorporated under HT Media Ltd.
 2004: HT Media Ltd was listed as a public company and attracted external funding.
 2005: Hindustan Times successfully entered the Mumbai market with a refreshingly new product and content mix.
 2006: Fever 104 FM is launched, in technical collaboration with the Virgin Group. Hindustan was relaunched re-establishing the company 's prominent presence in the regional news space.
 2007: Mint, the business paper in partnership with the Wall Street Journal was launched in Delhi and Mumbai. In the internet space, was relaunched and was introduced.
 2008: Firefly e-Ventures, an HT Media Company launched its first portal for job seekers,; and a social networking website HT Media also entered the Mobile space with 54242 in partnership with


The very common meaning of research is “a search for knowledge”. Research is an art of scientific investigation. It is the movement from known to unknown.
The various definitions of research according to different experts are given below:
a) Research is defined as “The process which includes defining and redefining problems, formulating hypothesis or suggested solutions, collecting, organizing and evaluating data, making deductions and reaching conclusions, and at last carefully testing the conclusions to determine whether they fit the formulating hypothesis”. - Clifford Woddy
b) Research is defined as a “careful investigation or inquiry especially through search for new facts in any branch of knowledge”. - Oxford
c) Research is a “careful, patient, systematic, diligent inquiry or examination in some field of knowledge undertaken to establish facts or principles. - Clover and Balsley
From the above definitions, it is clear that research is an activity undertaken to establish the facts and principles in a scientific way, rather it is a method of discovering the truth in a scientific way.
Research design is the plan, structure and strategy of investigation conceived so as to obtain answers to research questions and to control variance. The plan is the overall scheme or programme of research. It includes an outline of what an investigator will do from writing the hypothesis and their operational implications to the final analysis of the data.
A good research design is often characterized by objectives like flexible, appropriate, efficient, and economical and so on. Generally the design which minimizes the bias and maximizes the reliability of the data collected and analyzed is considered as a good design. The design which gives the smallest experimental error is supposed to be the best design in many investigations.
A research design appropriate for a particular research problem, usually involves the consideration of the following factors:
a. The means of obtaining information.
b. The availability and skills of the researcher.
c. The objective of the problem to be studied.
d. The nature of the problem to be studied.
e. The availability of time and money for the research work.
The research design for our project includes questions such as:
a. What is the purpose of study of VAS in Mumbai region?
b. Why is the study being made?
c. Where will the study be carried out?
d. What type of data is required for the analysis?
Based on these questions, the questionnaire has been prepared to collect maximum relevant information from the respondent. The questionnaire is attached in the annexure here with.
There are different types of research designs available as experimental research design and descriptive research design.
The type of research conducted for this project was-
Descriptive Research Design: It includes surveys and fact finding enquiries of different kinds. It is a fact- finding investigation with adequate interpretation. It is the simplest type of research, and is more specific than an exploratory study as it focuses on particular aspects of the problem being studied, so research design used for this project was descriptive research design.

The purpose of research is to reach new conclusions to establish facts, to study a subject scientifically and to verify the knowledge. Research is result oriented. Its results are newly discovered facts, additional knowledge, and evaluation of principles and so on. It can give new direction to life as well as to society.
In this project research on consumer was carried out .i.e. it is connected with the studies of buyer behavior. This project was focused to understand how much are the consumers aware about the Value-added Services and how much are they using it. This research probes into different factors such as sociological, economic and psychological that influences the customers in their decision to opt for Value-added Services. The Company HT Mobile Solutions Ltd wanted to know whether its subscribers are satisfied with the services and to what extent. Similarly, this research also provided customers suggestions when they feel certain deficiency or when they would like to have some improvements in the product.
Data collection is the heart of the research. Data is the raw material with which a market researcher functions. Data can be derived from several sources like Primary and secondary data.
Different methods of collection of data are:
1. Questionnaire: It is that method in which a number of printed questions are used for collecting data.
2. Interview Techniques: This method is the oldest and the most commonly used methods. In this an interviewer is personally required to visit the respondent with the set of question that is to be asked.
3. Observation: In this method, the respondent is simply observed and his/her actions are recorded. It is used to obtain information on both past and present behavior of people.
4. Direct mail: It is the best way to reach people who refuse to give personal interviews. Here, the survey is carried out by mailing self administered questionnaires. The set of questions, on which information is required to fill up the responses and mail it back to the researcher.
In this research personal interview method is used for data collection.
Primary Data: It means data gathered for the first time by the researcher. It is obtained by a study specifically designed to fulfill the needs of the problem at hand. Such data are original in character and are generated in large number of surveys conducted mostly by government and also by some individual, institutions and research bodies.
For Example, data obtained in a population census by the office of the Registrar General and Census Commissioner, Ministry of Home Affairs are primary data.
Secondary Data: Data which are not originally collected but rather obtained from published or unpublished sources are known as secondary data. It is of two kinds – Internal and External. Internal data is readily available; the researcher gets it without much effort, time and money. External data is collected from the internet, newspapers, magazines, yellow pages, reference books, etc.
In this project, primary data was collected through a questionnaire method, as this will result in unbiased information, simultaneously providing with accurate data. The questions were, closed ended and options were provided.
Secondary data was collected from Company website database, newspapers, magazines and the earlier research report prepared by Indian marketing research bureau (IMRB).
The questionnaires can be classified into four main types –
a) Structured-non-disguised
b) Structured-disguised
c) Non-structured-non-disguised
d) Non-structured-disguised
Designing a questionnaire is not as simple as it looks at first sight. A marketing researcher intending to collect primary data has to be extremely careful in deciding what information is to be collected, how many questions are to be formulated, what should be their sequence, what should be the wording of each question, and what should be the layout of the questionnaire. All these aspects need considerable time and effort of the marketing researcher.
The first question marketer has to ask himself what type of information he needs from the survey. He should seriously consider this question as it will have considerable repercussion on the usefulness of the survey. The information could be one or more of the following types: facts, quasifacts, awareness, or penetration of information, opinions, attitudes, future action plans and reasons.

The second most important aspect in the designing of a questionnaire is to decide which types of question are to be used. Questions can be classified in various ways. One way of classification is as follows:
1. Open-ended questions
2. Dichotomous questions
3. Multiple-choice questions
The next issue is how to phrase the questions. The way in which questions are drafted is very important as a slightly suggestive wording would elicit a very different answer from the respondent. In order to ensure the appropriate phrasing questions, one should be particular about the following factors:
1. Difficult words should be avoided as far as possible. Likewise, technical terms which an average respondent may not understand should be excluded.
2. Vague words such as “many”, “often”, “generally”, “on the whole” should not be used.
3. Lengthy questions should be avoided.
4. One should avoid combining two questions into one.
Since, in the beginning, the researcher has to establish some rapport with the respondent, it is necessary that questions asked at the beginning are simple and thereby helpful in establishing the rapport. Difficult questions or those on sensitive issues should be relegated to the end of the questionnaire. Further, questions of general type should be asked in the beginning while those which are specialsed, needing some in-depth information from the respondents, should be left to the end.
Sampling is the selection of units from the entire group called the population or universe of interest. In marketing, a sample is a particular segment or part of the market and it is the focus for taking the marketing decisions which can be applied to the entire market.
Definition - “Sampling is the selection of certain percentage of a group of items according to a predetermined plan” - By Bogrdus.
The overall sample involved in the study consisted of 160 individuals, keeping in view the limited resources of time. It was fixed beforehand and every effort was made to cover the given number of individuals with the available time for collection of data for this project. The data was collected with the help of the questionnaire, herself by the researcher.
Basically samples are of two types:
1) Probability or Random Sampling
2) Non- Probability or Purposive sampling

Probability Sampling:
These are the samples which are selected in such a manner, that every member of the universe has an equal chance of being included/excluded, in it and in which probable error that may creep in the result is known in advance.
Non Probability Sampling:
These samples are made to meet the specific requirement of a special nature. These samples are more popular in the field of marketing research.
Method used for analysis of study:
The methodology used for this project is survey method. It is time consuming and expensive method and requires more administrative planning and supervision. It is also subjective to interviewer’s bias or distortion. Structured questionnaire was used at the time of interview.
Sampling technique used: Simple random sampling technique was used for carrying out this project.
Location: Navi Mumbai
Sample Size: 160 Respondents
Research Design :
Sources of Data Primary and Secondary data
Data collection method Survey – Personal Interview
Sample Size 160 Respondents
Sampling Technique Random Sampling Technique
Analytical Tool Used Diagrams, Graphs & Charts


Analysis of Data
Once the data have been collected, the researcher has to process, analyze and interpret the same. All the efforts will be in vain if the collected data are not properly processed and analyzed. The analysis of the data requires a number of closely related operations such as establishment of categories, the application of these categories to raw data through coding, tabulation and then drawing statistical inferences.
The unwisely data should necessarily be condensed into few manageable groups and into tables also for further analysis. Thus researcher should classify the raw data into some purposeful and usable categories. Tabulation comprises sorting of data into different categories and counting the number of cases that belong to each category.
In the process of analysis, relationships or differences supporting or conflicting with original or new hypothesis should be subjected to tests of significance to determine with what validity data can be said to indicate any conclusion.
Interpretation means explanation or finding out the meaning. It involves drawing inferences from the analysis of data. Interpretation and analysis are closely interlinked. The interpretation is done on the basis of the analyzed data and also some recommendations are given to fill the loopholes of the actual scenario.
Research is conducted to finding the solution to the problem, so to find the solution of the problem, data analysis and interpretation is must.
The sample size in this study consisted of 160 individuals and the data analysis is done from the response of these 160 individuals.

1. Please specify your age group:

a) Less than 15 yrs b) 15-25 yrs c) 25-35 yrs d) 35-50 yrs e) 50 and above
Age Group No. of Respondents % Of responses less than 15 Yrs 12 7.5
15-25 Yrs 55 34.4
25-35 Yrs 48 30
35-50 Yrs 28 17.5
50 and above 17 10.6
Total 160 100

Interpretation: From the above drawn chart it was found out that
 30%-35% of the respondents are from the age group of 15-25 yrs and 25-35 yrs.
 Out of 160 respondents only 9% were between the age group of 50 & above.
 The remaining respondents were from the age group of 35-50 yrs and less than 15 yrs.

2. Please specify your Occupation:
a) Student b) Home Maker c) Service Class
d) Self Employed e) Others
Occupation No. of respondents % of responses
Student 76 47.5
Home Maker 15 9.4
Service Class 25 15.6
Self Employed 5 3.1
Others 39 24.3
Total 160 100

Interpretation: Out of the 160 Subscribers
 49% of the subscribers are from the students groups and many others from the others category i.e. retired or unemployed.
 The remaining subscribers were homemakers, service class and self employed people.

3. Please specify your family annual income:
a) Less than 2 lakhs b) 2-4 lakhs c) 4-6 lakhs d) More than 6 lakhs
Income No. of respondents % of responses less than 2 lakhs 12 7.5
2-4 lakhs 32 20
4-6 lakhs 84 52.5
More than 6 lakhs 32 20
Total 160 100

Interpretation: Out of the 160 respondents
 53% of the respondents were having annual income of Rs.4-6 lakhs.
 Very less of the respondents i.e. 7% were having annual income less than Rs.2 lakhs.
 20% of the mobile subscribers are having an annual income of Rs.2-4 lakhs or more than 6 lakhs.

4. What type of connection do you use?
a) Pre-paid b) Post-paid
Connection No. of respondents % of responses
Pre-paid 142 88.7
Post-paid 18 11.2
Total 160 100

Interpretation: Out of the 160 mobile subscribers
 89% are pre-paid users.
 Very less percentage of the subscribers, i.e. only 11% of the respondents out of 160 were having post-paid connection.

5. Which Mobile connection are you currently using?
a) Airtel b) Vodafone c) Idea d) BSNL
e) Reliance f) Tata Indicom g) Others
Connection No. of respondents % of responses
Airtel 21 13.1
Vodafone 13 8.1
Idea 42 26.2
BSNL 3 1.8
Reliance 40 25
Tata Indicom 6 3.7
Others 35 21.8
Total 160 100

Interpretation: Out of the 160 respondents
 Majority of the respondents are either using Idea, i.e. 26% or using Reliance connections i.e. 25%.
 22% of the respondents are using other connections like Uninor, Aircel, etc.
 Only 8% and 4% of respondents are using Vodafone and Tata Indicomm respectively.
 Remaining are using Airtel connection.

6. Which technology do you prefer?
a) CDMA b) GSM c) Both
Technology No. of respondents % of responses
CDMA 28 17.5
GSM 79 49.4
Both 53 33.1
Total 160 100

Interpretation: The above drawn chart shows that

 50% of the mobile users in India are using GSM technology.
 Only 33% of the respondents use CDMA technology.
 Some people prefer both the technologies.

7. What is your monthly spending on your mobile bills?
a) Less than Rs.350 b) Rs.350-700 c) Rs. 700-1500
d) Rs.1500-3000 e) Rs.3000 and above
Mobile Bill No. of respondents % of responses
Less than Rs.350 19 11.8
Rs.350-700 43 26.8
Rs.700-1500 79 49.4
Rs.1500-3000 16 10
Rs.3000 and above 3 1.8
Total 160 100

Interpretation: The above drawn pie-chart shows that
 49% of the mobile users spend between Rs.700-1500 per month on their mobile bill.
 Only 10% of respondents spend less than Rs.350 or between Rs.1500-3000.
 27% of the respondents spend between Rs.350-700, and a very less percentage of the people i.e. 2% spend Rs.3000 & above.

8. Of this bill amount, how much money is spent on regular calls and SMS’s?
a)More than 90% b) 70-90% c) 50-70% d) Less than 50%
Money spending No. of respondents % of responses
More than 90% 88 55
70-90% 39 24.4
50-70% 21 13.1 less than 50% 12 7.5
Total 160 100

Interpretation: The graph gives the interpretation that
 Only 8% of the respondents spend more money on value-added services and spend only 30-45% of money from their monthly bill on regular calls & SMS’s.
 55% of the respondents spend more money on regular calls and only 5-10% on VAS.
 Remaining of the respondents use at least 70-90% of the mobile bill money on regular calls & SMS’s and very less on value-added services.

9. How much aware are you about the existence of value added services like Cricket, news, ringtones, wallpapers, railway, etc?
a) Have seen the promos & know the intricacies of these services
b) Have seen the promos but not sure about the service details
c) Haven’t seen or heard of these
Know VAS No. of respondents % of responses
Have seen the promos & know the intricacies of these services 56 35
Have seen the promos but not sure about the service details 102 63.7
Haven 't seen or heard of these 2 1.2
Total 160 100

Interpretation: The above drawn pie-chart shows that
 More than 98% of the users have seen the promos of the Value-added services.
 It also shows that out of these 98% mobile users only 35% users know the intricacies of these Value-added services.
 Only 1% of the respondents haven’t seen or heard of any promos regarding VAS.

10. How often do you use these services :
a) Use it every day on a regular basis
b) Use 1-2 of these intensively
c) Not really interested in using these
Please specify the services used ________
Use Services No. of respondents % of responses
Use it on daily basis 55 34.4
Use 1-2 of these intensively 78 48.8
Not really interested 27 16.9
Total 160 100

Interpretation: Out of the 160 respondents
 83% of the respondents use the value-added services.
 Out of these 83% only 34% of the users are using it on daily basis, others use it intensively.
 The remaining mobile users are not aware of value-added services.

11. How much are you willing to pay per day to check cricket scores or the news?
a) Rs.1 and below b) Rs.1-2
c) Rs.2-4 d) Rs.4 and above
Willing to pay No. of respondents % of responses
Rs.1 and below 53 33.1
Rs.1-2 98 61.2
Rs.2-4 9 5.7
Rs.4 and above 0 0
Total 160 100

Interpretation: The pie-chart indicates that
 61% of the respondents are willing to pay Rs.1-2 for checking their daily alerts like news, or cricket scores.
 Only 6% of the respondents are willing to pay Rs.2-4.
 33% of the respondents were willing to pay Rs.1 & below, and no one was willing to pay more than Rs.4.

12. Is your cell-phone 3G ready?
a) Yes b) No c) Not Sure, cannot differentiate
3G Ready No. of respondents % of Responses
Yes 17 10.7
No 65 40.7
Not Sure, Cannot differentiate 78 48.8
Total 160 100

Interpretation: We can draw a conclusion from the above drawn graph that
 49% of the mobile users are not aware of 3G and cannot differentiate between 2G and 3G.
 Only 10% of the mobile users from 160 are aware of 3G and are ready to use it.
 41% of the respondents are not ready for 3G services.

13. Are you aware of the benefits of 3G services like video call, live streaming video, broadband internet speeds :
a) I am keenly following the 3G updates
b) Have seen the promos and news articles
c) Don’t really know, does not concern me
Aware of 3G Benefits No. of respondents % of Responses
I am keenly following the 3G updates 25 15.6
Have seen the promos and news articles 71 44.4
Don’t really know, does it concern me 64 40
Total 160 100

Interpretation: From the above drawn pie-chart, we can say that
 16% of the respondents are aware of the 3G benefits and are keenly following the updates.
 The remaining respondents have seen the promos but are not interested in 3G services.

14. For a 3G service like video call or video streaming, what rate would you be willing to pay?
a) Rs.1-2/min b) Rs.2-5/min
c) Rs.5-8/min d) Not Interested
Rate 3G Services No. of respondents % of responses
Rs.1-2/min 58 36.2
Rs.2-5/min 15 9.4
Rs.5-8/min 20 12.5
Not Interested 67 41.9
Total 160 100

Interpretation: Out of 160 respondents
 36% of the respondents are willing to pay Rs.1-2/min for 3G services.
 22% of the respondents are willing to pay between Rs.5-8/min for the services.
 The majority i.e. 42% of the respondents are not interested in rating 3G services.


 Personal biasness may be included in the research work.

 The result of the study may not be universally applicable due to regional constraints.


 45% of the mobile users are not aware of value-added services.

 Though mobile VAS has been developed long ago but still most of the people think mobile only as a communication device.

 Majority of the mobile users does not remember any advertisements for mobile VAS.

 People are not ready for third generation mobile phones.

 Majority of the people cannot differentiate third generation (3G) from second generation (2G).

 More than 90% of the mobile users are using Pre-paid connections, as it offers ease at the time of purchase and recharge sachets are easily available at low cost.

 Mobile subscribers are not ready to pay more for the value-added services.


 Companies should launch good quality handsets at economical price so that people can use the new technologies and the services at affordable price.
 Companies should also slash down the 3G charges which are currently very high as it will result in more sales of 3G phones and 3G services and people will become more aware of the new technologies.
 Companies should provide promotional offers for the new subscribers (people who are using 3G phones & those who opt for new services for the first time) which will result in increased usage of VAS and this in turn will increase the awareness of the same.
 At present majority of the companies are targeting the youth, with this companies should also design new services in VAS for the youth of semi-urban and rural areas.
 In India people always think about the money spent and the return benefits i.e. value, so companies should make the services at economical cost.
 Company should open up education camps at the mobile store outlets to educate the existing and new mobile subscribers about the new value-added services, which will give the experience of touch & feel to the users.


In the age of convergence, the prominent growth driver of MVAS would be the consumers’ desire of getting more from their mobile phone. While among the youth entertainment related services would be popular, the other consumer would also look for utility based services like location information, mobile commerce for mobile transactions and local content rich services.
Mobile VAS industry in India in undergoing a lot of structural changes and is poised to grow and contribute greater revenues to the telecom industry in years to come.
 Currently MVAS market is fragmented and consists of a large number of small content providers. Consolidation of MVAS market will happen, leading to emergence of few strong content providers. This would enable content providers to command greater share of revenue in the MVAS ecosystem.
 With the growth of MVAS market in India, more rationality will emerge in the revenue structure. The revenue structure would be dependent on the value added by the respective stakeholder in delivering the product to the end user. This would enable the growth of MVAS in India.
 MVAS in India is largely dominated by the urban population, with rural constituting around 15% of the total market. Rural MVAS would witness marginal growth and would grow to around 20% in the next couple of years.
 M-commerce has tremendous growth opportunity in India. The services that would boost to the m-commerce market in India are mobile marketing, mobile banking and mobile payment. A major step has been taken by RBI in issuing the mBanking guidelines.
 The telecom operators have already taken a step for differential pricing of the content. Further, in an attempt to cater to the expanding mobile subscribers in India, the telecom operators will price the content in a manner suitable to the target respondent.

Mobile Value-added service is a growing market and has a huge potential in Indian telecom market. Presently, it contributes a small percentage to the overall telecom revenue. There are various roadblocks that restrain the growth of MVAS market in India. Given the current scenario, it is imperative for the stakeholders to work together to address each roadblock and enable the market to grow. The issues faced are:
 The consumers are not fully aware of the services offered in MVAS. The promotional SMS sent on the mobile phones are the primary source of making end consumer aware of value-added services. This method of promoting MVAS has now reached the saturation stage. The stakeholders need to ensure that the consumers are educated about the value of the services in the MVAS market. This would ensure more acceptability and usage of services among the users.
 Currently, the value-added services are priced at a higher side. This is hampering growth of VAS. The consumer looks for value in service if they are paying for it. The Indian MVAS consists primarily of prepaid users, who have relatively lower budget for MVAS in their overall mobile expenditure. The stakeholders need to package the services in such a manner that ensures correct mix of money and value to the consumer.
 The service providers don’t make the consumers aware of the process of unsubscribing from any service. The consumers may refrain from using the service in case the exit barriers are too high. The service providers need to ensure that there is a correct mechanism for making the users aware of existing from the service.


1. MVAS – Mobile Value-added services
2. CDMA – Code division multiple access
3. GSM – Global satellite mobile communication
4. MoU – Minutes of usage
5. ARPU – Average revenue per user
6. ACPU – Average connection per user.
7. FSPs- Fixed Service provider
8. WAP – Web application portal
9. UGC – User generated content
10. 3G & 2G – Third & Second generation
11. CRBT – Caller ring back tone
12. P2P/P2A – Person to person/Person to application
13. TRAI – Telecom regulatory authority of India
14. SMS – Short message service
15. WLL – Wireless local loop


1. Please specify your age group :
b) Less than 15 yrs
c) 15-25 yrs
d) 25-35 yrs
e) 35-50 yrs
f) 50 and above

2. Occupation :
• Student
• Home Maker
• Service class
• Self employed
• Other (_____________)

3. Family annual income :
• Less than 2 lakhs
• 2-4 lakhs
• 4-6 lakhs
• More than 6 lakhs

4. What type of connection do you use :
• Pre-Paid
• Post-Paid

5. Which mobile connection are you currently using :
• Airtel
• Vodafone
• Idea
• Reliance
• Tata Indicom
• Others(____________)

6. Which technology do you prefer :
• Both

7. What is your monthly spending on your mobile bills :
• Less than Rs. 350
• Rs. 350-700
• Rs. 700-1500
• Rs 1500-3000
• Rs. 3000 and above

8. Of this bill amount, how much money is spent on regular calls and SMS’s :
• More than 90%
• 70-90%
• 50-70%
• Less than 50%

9. How much aware are you about the existence of value added services like Cricket, news, ringtones, wallpapers, railway, etc :
• Have seen the promos & know the intricacies of these services
• Have seen the promos but not sure about the service details
• Haven’t seen or heard of these

10. How often do you use these services :
• Use it every day on a regular basis
• Use 1-2 of these intensively
• Not really interested in using these
Please specify the services used ________________________

11. How much are you willing to pay per day to check cricket scores or the news :
• Rs. 1 and below
• Rs. 1-2
• Rs. 2-4
• Rs. 4 and above

12. Is your cell-phone 3G ready :
• Yes
• No
• Not sure, cannot differentiate

13. Are you aware of the benefits of 3G services like video call, live streaming video, broadband internet speeds :
• I am keenly following the 3G updates
• Have seen the promos and news articles
• Don’t really know, does not concern me

14. For a 3G service like video call or video streaming, what rate would you be willing to pay :
• Rs. 1-2/min
• Rs. 2-5/min
• Rs. 5-8/min
• Not Interested


 C.R.Kothari, “Research Methodology”, New age international publications, Second revised edition, Year 2004, Delhi.
 G.C.Beri, “Marketing Research”, Tata McGraw-Hill Publishing Company Ltd., 4th edition, Year 2003, New Delhi.

Bibliography:  C.R.Kothari, “Research Methodology”, New age international publications, Second revised edition, Year 2004, Delhi.  G.C.Beri, “Marketing Research”, Tata McGraw-Hill Publishing Company Ltd., 4th edition, Year 2003, New Delhi.     

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