1. Schism- Ritual practices and Law
During the reform movements of the Abrahamic traditions, we see the same argument over and over again in each religion. As the Abrahamic traditions develop, this pattern of splitting between the ritual practices and law is continuously evident. In Judaism we see this split in the form of Temple Judaism and Rabbinical Judaism. Temple Judaism starts off as a sacrifice religions revolving around the temple which was the center location where religious practices would be performed. In addition, during this time, sacrifices were being done at the top of the hill and then shifted to being done in the temple. After the temple was destroyed for the second time, they did not rebuild it and they were left to figure out what to do with Judaism which is still a temple religion, with no temple. After that Rabbinical Judaism created a shift in the time period. Rabbinical Judaism focused on the development of law and text. During this time period, the Torah was being studied very carefully, interpretations and commentaries eventually became the norm (Mishnah and Talmud). They developed Synagogues to study the text and laws of the Torah. Similarly we see this division in Christianity with Peter and Paul. During the Last supper, Jesus mentions that Peter will be the next person in charge. Peter gets the transmission of authority and becomes the head Apostle in rituals. During his time he develops the structure of the Hierarchy allowing Christianity to spread and survive because the rituals could be performed by many people. On the other hand, Paul was known for the lineage of legalism and thought. He is the character that separates Jesus’ message from Judaism and develops the early understanding of law in Christianity. Lastly, we see a very similar split in Islam as well. As soon as Mohammed moves him community from Mecca to Medina we start to see several ritual practices become apart of the Muslim religion. The community starts memorizing and writing down the revelations because they recognize them as specific prayers with very specific movements. In addition, the Qur’an starts being recited communally and they create habitual rituals to follow. When they arrive to Medina they also adopt rituals such as almsgiving, fasting, purifying Mecca and the Kaaba from Polytheism, Salat, and Hajj. Another question arose during that time, since Mohammed used to make all the legal decisions, who will make them now that he is gone? They realized that they have put too much weight on human decisions that could be wrong. They accommodate the probability of human error and create Fatwas which are legal obligations and suggestions. Looking at the development of the three Abrahamic traditions we can see this split between ritual practices and law extremely evident.
2. Prophecy and the nature of God, what are the deals we have made? (covenant) What are the agreements between religions and God?
Gods covenant with all the Abrahamic traditions is that they believe in Him alone, do not associate anything or anybody with Him in worship, uphold His laws, follow His Messengers, and honor His scriptures.
1. Noah: First book of the Torah, Genesis 17
God tells Noah he needs to build an arch. God says that things have gone wrong and that he will kill everyone. After the flood, you and your descendants have the deal of food and protection. Noah’s job is to breed the animals. 2. Abraham:
Abraham and his wife, Sarah, had trouble having children (old age, hereditary kinship/no lineage). Wife tells Abraham to have a child with their servant. Abraham has Ismael from Hagar (servant). The Abraham and Sarah have a child named Isaac. Abraham is told by god that he needs to sacrifice his legitimate air. Because Abraham was obedient, his people where chosen family/lineage, and god saves Isaac. Instead of sacrificing sons they would do circumcision and animal sacrifices. -Abraham and...
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