Using Research and Statistics in Health Care *14
this topic addresses the following learning objectives:
* Explain the role of research in developing knowledge for use in health care evidence-based practice situations. * Identify several ways that research can influence healthcare policy. * Identify peer-reviewed healthcare research articles.
* Differentiate between descriptive and inferential research questions in a peer-reviewed article on healthcare research. * Identify the problem statement/purpose/aim in a peer-reviewed article on healthcare research. * Identify the theoretical or conceptual framework used in a peer-reviewed article on healthcare research. * Differentiate between Anderson’s model of health care use and the Theory of Planned Behavior. * Identify the research question(s) in a peer-reviewed article on healthcare research. * Differentiate between descriptive and inferential questions in a peer-reviewed article on healthcare research. * Identify the hypothesis being tested in a peer-reviewed article on healthcare research. * Identify and describe the variables present in a peer-reviewed article on healthcare research. * Differentiate between observational and quasi-experimental/experimental study designs in peer-reviewed articles on healthcare research. * Determine the type of sample used in a peer-reviewed article on healthcare research. * Identify the assumptions and limitations of findings in a peer-reviewed article on healthcare research.
four main purposes of empirical research: description, exploration, explanation, and prediction and control research studies use two different categories of statistics to analyze the data collected: descriptive and inferential. Descriptive statistics are simply numerical or graphical summaries of data, and may include charts, graphs, and simple summary statistics such as means and standard deviations to describe characteristics of a population sample. Inferential statistics are statistical techniques (e.g., chi-square test, the t test, the one-way ANOVA) that allow conclusions to be drawn about the relationships found among different variables in a population sample. Explanatory studies do not necessarily attempt to establish causality but often attempt to understand how variables are related to each other. Inferential statistics are used to examine how one variable is related to other variables; in other words, the relationship among variables
BOX 1-1: COMMON MISTAKES IN RESEARCH
* 1. Undertaking a research project without reviewing the existing literature on the subject * 2. Collecting data without a well-defined plan, hoping to make sense of it afterward * 3. Defining terms in general or ambiguous language
* 4. Failing to base research on a sound theoretical foundation * 5. Failing to make explicit and clear the underlying assumptions * 6. Failing to recognize the limitations of the approach * 7. Failing to anticipate rival hypotheses that would account for findings and that challenge interpretations and conclusions Source: Courtesy of Dr. Brenda Nichols, Dean of the College of Arts and Sciences, Lamar University, Beaumont, Texas. A study plan is a written presentation of how the researcher is going to obtain and analyze the numerical data needed to answer the research questions. A good study plan keeps the analysis focused and relevant. It serves as the basis for the introduction and methods section of research papers after the data have been collected and analyzed. A study plan can also serve as the basis for the first sections of a dissertation or thesis. In addition, most grants require study plans similar to the one presented here. Andersen’s Model of Health Care Use
Andersen’s model of health care use postulates that the use of health services is a function of the perceived need for care, predisposing factors (e.g., cultural factors), and factors that enable patients to...
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