Physical = bathroom urges, shaking/anxiety
Emotional = stress, fear, embarrassment, depression, laughter Cognitive = Confusion of words/mumbling, lack of memory with speech.
Causes of CA + Lack of preparation.
+ Prior negative experience/trauma.
+ Fear of being the center of attention.
+ Concerned about being judged.
+ High stakes.
+ Different than the audience.
+ Degree of unpredictability.
+ Self-fulfilling prophecy.
+ Excessive self focus.
you need to make sure you show great eye contact and enthusiasm. Generic Speech Structures. +Chronological sequence
+ Spatial sequence
+ Structure-function sequence
+ Topical sequence
Main point labels. • Create interest
• Phrase clearly & carefully
• Use parallel structure (similar language)
• Avoid the word AND.
4 Causes of poor listening. 1. Lack of concentration
2. Listening too hard!
3. Jumping to conclusions/Not listening w/ patience.
4. Too much focus on delivery and personal appearance of the person giving the speech.
Dangers of poor listening. 1. Speaker - loose confidence w/ their audience. 2. Listeners- Don't get the mssg, are rude, ignore you.
3. Communication - is misinterpreted.
4. Event as a whole - goes another way.
How to improve on one's listening skills. 1. Active listening-Mind 2. Decide it's time to listen.
3. Focus your listening.
4. Avoid jumping to conclusions.
5. Looking for common ground.
Body::: 1. Place yourself in a listening position.
2. Use positive = responsive facial expressions.
3. Follows basic rules of cutesy = pays attention.
How to be a good listener-Sequel 1. Eyes are watching
2. Hands are still
3. Ears are listening.
4. Lips are closed.
5. Feet are quiet .
Things to keep in mind for Instructional Speech. 1. Use topical sequence Intro aka: Sign Post Ex. First, lets do this, Then lets do that, and Finally we'll do that. 2. Use the Body sequence.
Ex. 1.Very Interesting, 2.Very Boring, and 3.Somewhat Interesting. 3. Conclusion: Review main points, and conclude with a strong ending/lasting thought.
Notes from book: Intro to public speaking. 1. Be audience centered: identification - understand feeling, motives, thoughts, etc... 2. Select appropriate topics: Topic that fits audience, situation. 3. Be knowledgeable: Know as much as possible, about audience, situation, occasion, language, etc... 4. Use appropriate verbal and nonverbal behavior: Speaking effectively in public, think about the topic, audience situation, and intent of their speech.
5. Use appropriate appeals: Credibility of speaker of his/her own speech => Logos, Ethos, Pathos Logos: + Logos:Logos (plural: logoi) is logical appeal or the simulation of it, and the term logic is derived from it. It is normally used to describe facts and figures that support the speaker's claims or thesis. Having a logos appeal also enhances ethos (see above) because information makes the speaker look knowledgeable and prepared to his or her audience.
Ethos: +Ethos: Appeal to reliability = Ethos (plural: ethe) is an appeal to the authority or credibility of the presenter. It is how well the presenter convinces the audience that he or she is qualified to present (speak) on the particular subject. It can be done in many ways:
Pathos: +Pathos: (plural: pathe) is an appeal to the audience's emotions, and the terms pathetic and empathy are derived from it. It can be in the form of metaphor, simile, a passionate delivery, or even a simple claim that a matter is unjust.
What must your attention getter in your speech have? + Could ask a question. + Make a provocative statement that needs and answer from audience/Reveal startling statistics(with citations). + Refers to recent events, audience, or the occasion.
+ Find common ground w/ audience.
+ Use humor (depending on audience).
+ Can begin w/ a quotation.
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