Charismatic and Transformational Leadership
The purpose of this chapter is to help the reader understand the nature of charismatic and transformational leadership. Although the two forms of leadership overlap, they are treated separately here because the study of charismatic leadership focuses so heavily on personal traits. The legitimacy of either of these forms of leadership as a separate entity has been challenged. Nevertheless, studying charismatic and transformational leadership represents an important current thrust in understanding the leader’s role. 0CHAPTER OUTLINE AND LECTURE NOTES
The study of charismatic and transformational leadership, an extension of the trait theory, has become an important way of understanding leadership Charisma facilitates leaders carrying out their roles. I0.
THE MEANINGS OF CHARISMA
Charisma is a special quality of leaders whose purposes, powers, and extraordinary determination differentiate them from others. The various definitions of charisma have a unifying theme. Charisma is also a positive and compelling quality in a person that creates a desire in many others to be led by him or her. The attributes of charisma are important because they lead to behavioral outcomes such as commitment to the leader, self-sacrifice, and high performance. A study with law enforcement workers and business students showed that network members influence our attributions of charisma. A0.
Charisma: A Relationship Between the Leader and Group Members According to John Gardner, charisma applies to leader-constituent relationships in which the leader has an exceptional gift for inspiration and nonrational communication. Charismatic leaders work deliberately at cultivating the relationship with group members through impression management. These leaders recognize that the perceptions of constituents determine whether they function as charismatics. Charismatic leaders are skillful actors in presenting a charismatic face to the world. B0.
The Effects of Charisma
House developed a theory of charismatic leadership that defines charisma in terms of its effects. A charismatic person brings about these effects to a high degree. Halpern has factor analyzed these nine effects into three dimensions: referent power, expert power, and job involvement. Referent power is the ability to influence others and stems from the leader’s desirable traits and characteristics. Expert power is the ability to influence others because of one’s specialized knowledge, skills, or abilities. Job involvement is the feeling of being heavily committed to the job. Another way of understanding the effects of charisma is to understand that top-level leaders sometimes lose their power and position because they are perceived as not being charismatic enough to get constituents to accomplish important goals.
TYPES OF CHARISMATIC LEADERS
Charismatic leaders have been categorized into five types: (1) socialized charismatic—uses power to benefit others; (2) personalized charismatic—uses power to serve own interests; (3) office-holder charismatic—much of the charisma stems from the glitter of the office the leader holds; (4) personal charismatic—power stems from the faith people have in the leader; (5) divine charismatic—leader is endowed with a gift of divine grace. III0.
CHARACTERISTICS OF CHARISMATIC LEADERS
Charismatic leaders have unique characteristics, and many of these characteristics also apply to a transformational leader—one who brings about positive, major changes in an organization. In addition to the characteristics described in Chapter 2, charismatic leaders have other attributes: (1) they are visionary; (2) they have masterful communication skills; (3) they have the ability to inspire trust; (4) they are able to make group members feel capable; (5) they have energy and an action orientation; (6) they have emotional expressiveness and warmth; (7) they romanticize risk; (8) they use unconventional strategies; (9)...
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