The Scope of Applied Linguistics:
AL, according to Corder 1974 is the utilization of the knowledge about the nature of language achieved by linguistics research for the improvement of the efficiency of some practical task in which language is a central component.
1. Language and Teaching
Approaches & Methods
Grammar Translation Method (GTM): Classes are conducted in the mother tongue. This method depends on memorization of lists of new vocabulary in isolation (i.e. no context provided).Great attention is paid to grammatical rules. The Series Method: Ls are exposed to a series of connected sentences (in FL) that are easy to understand. The Direct Method: It depends on the oral interaction using the FL inside the classroom. It is based on the belief that language should be learned the way we learned our mother tongue. The Audio-lingual Method (ALM): It is based on the idea of over-learning and repetition. New Material is presented in a form of dialogues, broken into pieces. Cognitive Code Learning Method (CCL): It is a more student-oriented method as it focuses on his/her mentality and the complicated processes that take place as learning progresses. The Designer Methods:
1. Community Language Learning (CLL): It focuses on establishing inter personal relationships between Ls in order to make the classroom a family-like environment.
2. Suggestopedia: It is based on the idea that the human mind can learn anything if a suitable atmosphere (e.g.: music, visuals, imagination, meditation, relaxation ...) is provided
2. Language and Education/Learning
1st language education
In this section, linguists try to answer the question: how infants learn/ acquire their mother tongue? Parents do not teach their children to speak. They correct their falsehoods when they misbehave rather than correcting their language mistakes. First-language acquisition is innate, meaning that we are born with a set of language rules which Chomsky refers to as the Universal Grammar. These rules, Chomsky, who belongs to the Mentalists School, argues that these rules enable children to make new utterances of their own, i.e. they produce new language not only copy or repeat what they hear. Chomsky calls this idea Language Acquisition Device.
Additional language education
2nd language education
Second-language education is a young field that started systematically in 1950s and1960s. It is the study of how non primary language learning takes place. The SL can be used by the majority of the community, but it is not the mother tongue. For example, 232 million Indians use English along with Hindi. Unlike the innate principles of first-education, the second-language education is based on cognitive mechanism. The 1st language is acquired, whereas the 2nd language is learned.
Foreign language education
FL differs from the SL in that FL is not a language of communication in the learner’s country. For example, Egyptians speak English as an FL not an SL. Clinical linguistics
Crystal defines clinical linguistics as the application of the linguistic sciences to the study of language disability in all its forms (Crystal, 2001:673).
"Language Testing is the practice and study of evaluating the proficiency of an individual in using a particular language effectively." (Priscilla Allen, University of Washington) The purpose of a language test is to determine a person’s knowledge and/or ability in the language and to discriminate that person’s ability from that of others. (Alan Davies, University of Edinburgh) This branch is also called language assessment. This assessment may test listening reading, speaking and writing. The test pays attention to both knowledge, which is the theoretical understanding of a language and proficiency, which is the practical use of a language.
3. Language, Work , and Law
It answers the questions what are the different techniques of communication in the workplace, what...
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