Depth-of-Knowledge (DOK) Levels for Mathematics
According to Norman L. Webb, Wisconsin Center for Educational Research ("Depth-of-Knowledge Levels for Four Content Areas," March 28, 2002), "interpreting and assigning depth-of-knowledge levels to both objectives within standards and assessment items is an essential requirement of alignment analysis. Four levels of depth-of-knowledge are used for this analysis." Norman Webb's "Depth-of-Knowledge Levels for Four Content Areas" include: Language Arts (Reading, Writing), Mathematics, Science, and Social Studies. A general definition for each of the four (Webb) Depth-of-Knowledge levels is followed by Table 1, which provides further specification and examples for each of the DOK levels. Webb recommends that large-scale, on-demand assessments in mathematics should only assess Depth of Knowledge Levels 1, 2, and 3. Depth of Knowledge at Level 4 in mathematics should be reserved for local assessment. Level 1 (Recall) includes the recall of information such as fact, definition, term, or a simple procedure, as well as performing a simple algorithm or applying a formula. That is, in mathematics a one-step, well-defined, and straight algorithmic procedure should be included at this lowest level. Other key words that signify a Level 1 include "identify," "recall," "recognize," "use," and "measure." Verbs such as "describe" and "explain" could be classified at different levels depending on what is to be described and explained. Level 2 (Skill/Concept) includes the engagement of some mental processing beyond a habitual response. A Level 2 assessment item requires students to make some decisions as to how to approach the problem or activity, whereas Level 1 requires students to demonstrate a rote response, perform a well-known algorithm, follow a set procedure (like a recipe), or perform a clearly defined series of steps. Keywords that generally distinguish a Level 2 item include "classify," "organize," "estimate," "make...
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