1 Know how to recognise signs of abuse
Define the following types of abuse and identify the signs and/or symptoms associated with each type of abuse
The Department of Health has defined abuse as “Abuse is a violation of an individual’s human and civil rights by any person or persons” (No Secrets 2000). There are many different types of abuse and individual cases of abuse usually involve a different combination of these different types. (i) Physical abuse
Refers to hitting, slapping, scratching, pushing or rough handling of another person. It can also involve assault and battery either with the hand or another object. Restraining persons without out justifiable reason and misuse of medication are also forms of physical abuse. Inappropriate sanctions including deprivation of food, clothing, warmth and health care needs Some of the symptoms include a history of unexplained falls or minor injuries especially at different levels of healing. Unexplained bruising especially in well protected areas of the3 body,e.g. on the inside of thighs or upper arms. Burn marks of unusual type. A history of frequent changes of general practitioners or reluctance in the family, carer or friend towards a consultation. An accumulation of medicine which has been prescribed for a client but not administered. Malnutrition, ulcers, bed sores and being left in wet clothing. Lastly a reluctance to be left alone with the abuser. (ii) Sexual abuse
Sexual abuse involves sexual activity which a person (adult) has not consented to or been pressured into. All form of sexual activity with children is abuse as they are under the age of consent. Sexual activity which takes place when the adult is unaware or has the capacity to be aware of the consequences or risks involved. Rape, sexual assault and masturbation plus sexual harassment are further forms of sexual assault. Lastly there are forms of non-contact sexual abuse e.g. voyeurism and pornography Some of the signs and indicators of sexual abuse include unexplained changes in the behaviour, a tendency to withdraw and spend time in isolation. Reluctance to be left alone with the alleged abuser. Expression of explicit sexual behaviour and/or language which is out of character. Irregular and distributed sleep patterns. Bruising or bleeding in the recital or genital areas. Sexually transmitted disease or pregnancy where the individual cannot give consent to. (iii) Psychological abuse
Psychological is a variety of behaviour that hurt or injure another person’s feelings or emotional state. They include emotional abuse, verbal abuse humiliation and ridicule. Threats of punishment, intimidation, blackmail or exclusion from services. Isolation or withdrawal from services or supportive networks and lastly deliberate denial of religious or cultural needs. Some of the indicators of this type of abuse include the inability of the person to sleep or tendency to spend long periods in bed. A loss of appetite or overeating at inappropriate times. The individual may display anxiety, confusion or a general air of resignation and become withdrawn. Other behavioural sign include fearfulness and signs of loss of self-esteem, in the other extreme uncooperative and aggressive behaviour.
(iv) Financial Abuse
The misuse or theft of money from an individual is an obvious form of financial abuse, but it can also include fraud and extortion of material assets, the misuse or misappropriation of property, possessions or benefits and exploitation or pressure in connection with wills, property or inheritance. Some of the signs of this form of abuse can include an unexplained inability to pay for household bills, withdrawal of large sums of money which cannot be explained. Also missing personal possessions and a disparity between the persons living conditions and their financial resources.
Institutional abuse can include any of the different forms of abuse identified but is classed separately...
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