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By mukayi Sep 22, 2014 1675 Words
ethnicity is the fact or state of belonging to a social group that has a common nationality or culture tradition (oxford dictionary).different researchers has researched about ethnicity in different ways using different methods and getting different result. It therefore the purpose of this essay to review ways in which different researchers have conductive their research. To start with the topic idea for researchers is different in way that they approach it in their research.reseachers such as Harris and findley had their research basing on the topic is ethnicity identifiable lessons from an experiment in south Africa. This shows that they conducted their research in the country South Africa only.thier theory was individuals identify more strongly with their own group when they have a more salient connection to it as well as feelings to superiority towards another group. (Blascovich et al 1997, tayfel and tunner 1979, 1986, horowitz 1998).according to yinger “tendency to exaggerate the salience of ethnic identities to overlook the strong pressure towards assimilation. “They gave an example of the Hutus who believed that the Tutsi where taller, lighter skinned and have a narrow nose than theirs. They further created hypothesis using their theory that a stronger ethnic is more likely to successfully identify others than a weaker ethnic. On this they base that individuals identify others using information such as names, languages and accent. This was supported by lei roie Jones according to him,’........... Their customs, attitudes and desire are shaped in different life ...............”this shows that they are able to identify themselves. They had another hypothesis stating that a stronger ethnic is more likely to successfully identify others than a weaker ethnic given more true information about a person’s ethnic identity. According to davenport and stum 2009during the Rwandan genocide some Tutsi attempted to pass as Hutus to avoid being killed. Still more in this research the authors used an experimental design as their method thru which they conducted a subject through posters advertisement. During this they provided questionnaires .they conducted the research in the large township of mayibuya in South Africa in Eastern Cape. With this research they were able to conclude that stronger ethnic identity can increase one’s ability to identify the ethnicity of others correctly. In this search they used the triangulation approach for they used more than one method for data collection. It was a qualitative research because it first gives us a theory and then go into the field for checking the applicabity of the theory if it can be applied in the real world .it is also quantitative for statistic were used for the results and numbers were provided. This shows that the research is both inductive and deductive research. It is also a descriptive research. The researcher uses the topic as ethnicity as cognition which is different in approach. This topic provides cognitive perspective providing resources for conceptualising ethnicity race and nation as perspective on the world rather than entities in the world. A cognitive approach to the study of ethnicity directs our attention not to individual psychology but sociomental. According to the author the discursive approach, in contrast, treats talk and texts ... as forms of social action. Categorization is something we do, in talk, in order to accomplish social actions (persuasion, blaming, denials, reputations, accusations, etc.). From this perspective, we would expect language’s ‘‘resources’’ not to come ready-made from a process in which people are trying their best to understand the world [as in the cognitive approach] ... but rather, or at least additionally, to be shaped for their functions in talk, for the business of doing situated social actions. Comparing with the first it is different in the sense that the first researchers did their research only on one country hence their research differ because here the author is basing on the world to find his conclusion. Their theory is on as long as ethnic groups were convinced as substantial objectively definable entities there was no reason to categorise or classification. In this research the authors used a method of observation which is different from the first researchers they approach was an imperial researcher where here he identified how cognation and how it can be done. He grouped the cognitive perspective from categories to schemas. The researcher considered categorisation as a political project and an everyday social practice. George Lakoff put it “the is nothing more basic than categorisation to our thought ,perception ,action and speech. He went on to suggest the use of stereotypes. According to the author stereotypes are no longer defined in terms of cognitive deficiencies so he introduces social catergorisation. This shows the the author is using different types of approach in finding this research topic. In his conclusion he concluded that cognitive perspectives can also advance the constructivist agenda by correcting for the elites bias of must constructivist research. His conclusion is different from others because he gives us an over view of ethnicity as cognition. He finalised that the cognitive perspective can help realize the constructivist aspiration to capture the relations and dynamics nature of race and ethnicity and nation as a fluid and cogent product of reiterative cumulative process of categorising, coding, framing, interpreting .he suggest that cognitive approach asks us whom, when and why people interpreted social experiences in racial ethnic or national terms. Like the second author he uses a quantitative approach. More still the author differ in the way the handle the research gbewonyo used the word in different perspective which is different from the first and the second author. He used his research on using the Bayesian Improved Surname Geocoding Method (BISG) to create a working classification on race and ethnicity in a diverse managed care population ;a validation study. Geocoding involves using a plan members to identify geographic areas where they live (Fiscella and Fremont ).his objective to validate classification of race or ethnicity based on gender and age. Krieger Williams denotes that researchers routinely use geocoding to identify demographic characteristics of populated area and as a means targeting vulnerable population or estimates effects of sociodemographic characteristics on health when individual levels data are unavailable. in this article the researcher used observation for his study using the Kaiser Permanente s research geography. They also used statistical methods which is a different approach from the first two researchers. According to fiscally and Fremont geocoding and surname analysis show promise for estimating race or ethnicity health plan composition of enrolle when direct data on major racial and ethnic groups are lacking.this is a quantitave research articles tfor the provide a statistics and have a generalised ideas.they differ in conclusion in the sense that it gives us an over view of the BISG.according to Elliot etal (2009) because of the different validation methods they are nonetheless comparable intheir findings of high correlation of the haspanic and asia they give an out come that there is a slight dender differences in validity is supported in the literature on BISG (Elliot et al )as well as othe r application of the indirect estimation of ethnicity involves surname analysis (howard etal).unlike others this research article is a descriptive research.however accuracy depended on racial segregation levels in the population and region assesd and geocoding was unreliable for identifying hispans and Asians.simialry ,several studies suggest surname analysis produce reasonable estimates of whether enrolle hipsans or Asian and can identify disparts.fiscella and Fremont notes that as a practical matter no method for obtainining race and ethnicity data can be entirely accurate or biased

also another researcher used the same key word but creat e different topic which is different from the other researcher.stayman used a different dimention which is situational ethnicity and consumer behaviorc.consumer behaviouris the decision that people make to nbuy or not buy a product and the thing thatinfluence ther deceision (Cambridge online dictictionary).he argues that the relationship between ethnicityare consumption is argued to be the situanal context in which choices are made.in his study he wants to demonstrate these effects by showing the impact of two situational dimension ,socal suroundings and antecedent conditions on ethnic food choices. The researcher suggested that ethnic identification aand behaviour is at least partly situationaly determined.that sis ethnicity is not just who one is but how one feels in asnd about particular situation.he constructed four hypothesis that a combination of self designated ethnicity iantecedent state .,social surroundings and prioduct type effect beha iour ,self disgnated ethnicity and antecedent state combine to influence felt ethnicity is a better predictor of behaviour than either self designated ethnicity or non situational specific felt ethnicityand the felt ethnicity behaviour relationship is moderate by the social surroundings and the moderate by the social suurounding and the product type being considered . He used design methods .the hpothesiose were tested using a four factor mixed effectsdesign(keppl 1982pp 452-463)subjects were recruited from a two sourcer.they used sampling methods using a theory based on the concerns of internal validity and need for a homogeneous population.this articles shows us independnant variales which werethe subject self designated ethnicity and antecedent stae ,social su=ituation and food type.the research is mainly based on the Chinese and the Mexican –American.the sample included 195 anglo americans ,54 chinese American and 57mexican amwrican from the three nitety five original subject the dependent variables were felt ethnicity was assesd through subject self rated strength of ethnic identification (dishpande et al 1986) They produced the results using the samples the y had used in the experiment .the author also testes each and every hypothesis from the model he had created. He concluded that the research discovered that consistent support for the effect of social surrounding on choice by ethnic groups .they also found evidence for situational determined felt ethnicity .Chinese and Mexican subjects in relevant bias conditions increased their strength of ethnic identification it gives us a general idea for the researcher points that more work remains to be done to identify whether and the self-notion applies to consumption situation. The researcher used both inductive and deductive approach for the research

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