The Nature of Reasoning
What is Reasoning?
a mental act whereby starting with several judgments which we relate to one another.
the process which uses arguments, statements, premises and axioms to define weather a statement is true or false, resulting in a logical or illogical reasoning. the process of using a rational, systematic series of steps based on sound mathematical procedures and given statements to arrive at a conclusion. the cognitive skills with which we reach sound conclusions in order to make decisions and solve our daily life problems.
In logical reasoning, an if-then statement (also known as a conditional statement) is a statement formed when one thing implies another and can be written and read as "If P then Q." A contrapositive is the conditional statement created when negating both sides of the implication and can be written and read as "If not Q, then not P." Anything that is not proven is known as a conjecture. In today’s logical reasoning three different types of reasoning can be distinguished, known as deductive reasoning, inductive reasoning and abductive reasoning based on respectively deduction, induction and abduction.
Deductive reasoning originates from the philosophy and mathematics and is the most obvious form of reasoning. Deduction is a method for applying a general rule (major premise) in specific situations (minor premise) of which conclusions can be drawn. Example: Major premise: All humans are mortal
Minor premise: Socrates is human
Conclusion: Socrates is mortal
Immediately the obviousness and straightforwardness of the conclusion can be drawn from the premises above of the example of deductive reasoning. Notice that deductive reasoning no new information provides, it only rearranges information what is already known into a new statement or conclusion.
Santiago, Alma, Logic: The Art of Reasoning, 6th Edition © 2011
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