5.4 Russian Czars Increase Power
Homework: Junkers & Serfs
Junkers: Prussian landowning nobility & exclusive right to be officers in the army Serfs: forced to serve the landowner. Not allowed to leave the estate
Objectives: Student will be able to explain how Ivan III and later Russian rulers began to build a stronger Russian state by investigating the differences between Russia and western Europe. Student will be able to explain the emerging role of Peter the Great by researching Peter’s reforms and their impact on Russia.
Ivan IV/Ivan the Terrible Russian czar 1547 to 1560
A. known as Ivan the Terrible-set up a police state-killed his eldest son in a violent quarrel. B. expanded army and hired European officers to train soldiers who served for life; C. introduced potatoes, which became staple of Russian diet; started first Russian newspaper; ordered nobles to adopt western fashions; raised status of women by having them attend social gatherings; advanced education by opening schools and ordering some to leave Russia to study D. forced thousands of serfs to work on building St. Petersburg on unhealthy swampy land E. ordered many Russian nobles to leave Moscow and settle in the new port city capital
1. Russian people did not believe that change was necessary. 2. The Russian Orthodox Church was too strong.
3. The great landowners had too much power.
4. The Russian army was untrained and its tactics and weapons were outdated. 5. Russian society had to change to compete with the modern states of Europe. 6. To promote education and growth, Russia needed a seaport for travel to the West. 7. The port needed to be built.
8. The new city needed to be settled.
Odds & Ends
1. Peter the Great’s main reason for visiting the West was to learn about Western customs and technology. 2. At the time that Peter the Great took the throne, the serfs were most essential to the Russian economy 3. The site for St. Petersburg was chosen because it was near water routes to Europe 4. Ivan the Terrible was the first Russian ruler to adopt the title czar, meaning “caesar”? 5. Ivan the Terrible’s cruelty was aimed mainly at the nobles. 6. In Russia, the boyars were the land-owning nobles.
5.4 Russian Czars Increase Power
BCR. We recognize that Peter believed that westernization would make Russia stronger. Peter the Great was fascinated by modern tools and machines. He wanted to compete with Europe both commercially and as a military power. Regarding Peter’s efforts to westernize Russia, he introduced potatoes, started Russia’s first newspaper, raised the status of women, ordered nobles to give up Russian styles for western styles, founded schools and made other efforts to advance learning.
1. Short-term effects were a more modern look for Russian nobles and tension between the czar and the boyars. 2. Long-term effects were reform in Russia and an ongoing debate and resentment over acceptance of foreign ideas. 3. The symbolism was that he was “cutting off” old ways—getting rid of tradition. 4. Answers will vary. The decision showed that Peter was deter-mined to reform Russia although he had to force change on his people. It angered the Russians and intensified their fear of change.
PRIMARY SOURCE Peter the Great’s Reforms
1. January 1, 1700; by praying; decorating streets and homes with trees, pine, and fir branches; firing guns; and displaying fire-works 2. They would not be allowed to marry.
3. Advantages: bridged the gap between Russia and Europe, helped Russia compete economically and socially. Disadvantages: caused disquieting changes in daily life, created resentment among those Russian citizens who held onto cultural traditions, increased Peter the Great’s power as absolute monarch.
Summary: In today’s lesson we explain how Russian rulers began to build a stronger Russian state by...
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