Public Sector

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Chapter-1

PUBLIC SECTOR IN INDIA (Overview & Profile)

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PUBLIC SECTOR IN INDIA
1.1 EVOLUTION
These included the Railways, the Posts and Telegraphs, the Port Trusts, the Ordinance Factories, All India Radio, few enterprises like the Government Salt Factories, Quinine Factories, etc. which were departmentally managed.

1.1.1 Prior to Independence, there were few ‘Public Sector’ Enterprises in the country.

1.1.2 Independent India adopted planned economic development policies in a democratic, federal polity. The country was facing problems like inequalities in income and low levels of employment, regional imbalances in economic development and lack of trained manpower. India at that time was predominantly an agrarian economy with a weak industrial base, low level of savings, inadequate investments and infrastructure facilities. In view of this type of socio-economic set up, our visionary leaders drew up a roadmap for the development of Public Sector as an instrument for self-reliant economic growth. This guiding factor led to the passage of Industrial Policy Resolution of 1948 and followed by Industrial Policy Resolution of 1956. The 1948 Resolution envisaged development of core sectors through the public enterprises. Public Sector would correct the regional imbalances and create employment. Industrial Policy Resolution of 1948 laid emphasis on the expansion of production, both agricultural and industrial; and in particular on the production of capital equipment and goods satisfying the basic needs of the people, and of commodities the export of which would increase earnings of foreign exchange.

1.1.3 In early years of independence, capital was scarce and the base of entrepreneurship was also not strong enough. Hence, the 1956 Industrial Policy Resolution gave primacy to the role of the State which was directly responsible for industrial development. Consequently the planning process (5 year Plans) was initiated taking into account the needs of

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