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Psychology Study Guide

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Psychology Study Guide
Chapter 10: Thinking
HW #59: Due Date
Rd: Pg. 395-Pg.401
1. Describe a life without concepts?
2. Provide an example of a category hierarchy
3. Describe the experiment concerning memory shifts conducted by Olivier
4. Why is heuristics a better strategy then step-by-step algorithm in finding another word in SPLOYOCHYG?
5. How did psychologists Mark-Jung-Beeman, John Kounios, and Edward
Bowden identify brain associations with flashes of insight?
6. How is insight critical in understanding a punch-line to a joke?
7. Provide an example of mental set and functional fixedness
8. Provide an example of the representativeness heuristic and availability heuristic
9. How does the availability heuristic affect our social judgment, as
Ruth Hamil demonstrated?
10. How did Kaheman and Tversky demonstrate overconfidence?
11. Describe the advantage and disadvantage of being overconfident?
12. Describe the four influences on our intuitions about risk, and how does it affect us irrationally fear 9/11?
13. How does the framing effect influence economic and business decisions? 14. Describe two invalid conclusions proving the belief bias?
15. Why is it so difficult to dismiss the belief perseverance phenomenon? 16. How is intuition adaptive in solving a problem?
HW #60: Due Date
Rd. Pg.410-Pg.417
1. How learning different sets of phonemes make it difficult for people of one language to produce phonemes of another language?
2. How many morphemes in the word cat? How many phonemes?
3. How is English syntax different from Spanish syntax in ordering words into syntax?
4. What is the universal relationship between the most common words used in all languages?
5. Why are many hearing parents of hearing children teach their children sign language?
6. Describe the babies’ receptive language
7. Why is the babbling stage not an imitation of adult speech?
8. Why is it important to have exposure to other languages?
9. Describe the four stages of language development after the babbling stage? 10. How did Skinner believe that we could explain language development?
11. Describe Chomsky’s language acquisition box, surface structure of a language, and deep structure of a language
12. Why are human infants considered little statisticians?
13. Are we capable of performing the same feat of statistical analysis throughout our life span?
14. What happens to children who are not exposed to either a spoken or a signed language during their early years?
15. How do we describe Skinner’s and Chomsky’s influence regarding this statement “Children’s genes design complex brain wiring that prepares them to learn language as they interact with their

care- givers”?
HW #61: Due Date
1. Provide evidence for Word’s linguistic determinism theory?
2. Describe the experiment conducted by Michael Ross, Elaine Xum, and
Anne Wilson regarding China-born bilingual students in Canada?
3. Provide evidence that language determining the way we think is too strong 4. Describe language and perception
5. Why does it pay to increase word power
6. What is the bilingual advantage, and how did Wallace lambert apply this concept with Canadian children?
7. What are the arguments of “English-only” education vs. bilingual education? 8. Provide three examples oft thinking in images as beneficial
9. How does mental rehearsal help achieve an academic goal?
10. What previous evidence supports thinking without language?
11. How do we conclusively know that thinking affects language?

HW #62: Due Date
Rd. Pg.423-Pg.428
1. How does the great ape display capacities for thinking?
2. How did Wolfgang Kohler observe apparent insight while observing chimpanzees? 3. Provide additional example of Chimpanzee inventiveness
4. What conclusions do Thomas Suddendorf and Andrew Whitten estimate about great ape’s capacity to for reasoning, self-recognition, empathy, and imitation?
5. What is amazing about Rico, the border collie that demonstrates language? 6. Describe the case study of Washoe, the chimpanzee
7. Why is gesturing critical in human communication?
8. Illustrate the five examples cited by skeptics that apes do not acquire language
9. How did the relationship between Washoe and the foster infant
Louilis, quiet skeptics?
10. Describe the claim made by Sue Savage-Rumbaugh that pygmy chimpanzee can learn to comprehend language
11. What did Descartes and other philosophers argue about animals?

Chapter 11: Intelligence
HW #63:

Due Date

Rd. Pg. 431-Pg. 436
Q1. Describe the two controversies involving intelligence
Q2. Describe indicators of a verbal intelligence factor?

Q3. According to Charles Spearman, if someone scores high on verbal intelligence, they would typically score higher on what other factor
Q4. Describe L.L Thrunstone’s mathematically identified seven clusters of primary mental abilities
Q5. What did Satoshi Kanazawa argue about how general intelligence evolved? Q6. How do people with savant syndrome and autism demonstrate Gardner’s theory of multiple intelligences?
Q7. List Gardner’s 8 intelligences and provide examples of each intelligence Q8. How did Sandra Scarr criticize Garners theory?
Q9. Describe other criticism of Gardner’s theory
Q10. Describe Robert Steinberg’s triarchic theory
Q11. Describe the attribute of Gardner’s and Stern berg theory

HW #64: Due Date
Rd. Pg. 436-Pg.441
Q1. What dilemmas did Seymor Epstein and Petra Meeirer have about high aptitude people?
Q2. Describe the emotional intelligence test developed by Mayer,
Salovery, and David Caruso
Q3. What do the 69 studies in many countries express about emotional intelligence? Q4. How did Elliot, who had a brain tumor removed, and lived with no emotion, demonstrated emotional intelligence is a critical factor in success? Q5. How does the g factor integrate emotional intelligence in predicting job success?
Q6. How does Wiles’ incredible moment illustrate creativity?
Q7. Illustrate the differences between divergent and convergent thinking
Q8. Describe the five component of creativity

Q9. What is the numerical correlation between brain volume and intelligence? Q10. On average, how many more synapses do highly educated people have then less educated people and how do their neural plasticity differ?
Q11. How does perceptual speed and neurological speed play a role in predicting intelligence?
Q12. Why would fast reactions on simple takes predict intelligence tests? HW #65: Due Date
Rd. Pg. 442-Pg. 450
Q1. How did Alfred Binet and Theodore Simon seek to stop subjective judgments of children’s learning potentials?
Q2. What did Binet and Simon theorize about mental aptitude?
Q3. Describe “mental orthopedics”
Q4. What were the contributions of Lewis Terman and Wiliam Stern to
Binet’s theory of predicting school achievement?
Q5. What were some abuses of the early intelligence tests, and how it contributes to the political climate in the United States?
Q6. Distinguish the difference between aptitude tests and achievement tests? Q7. Describe the component of the Wechsler Audit Intelligence Scale
(WAIS) and how does this test help in improving the test takers ability to succeed
Q8. Describe the significance of standardization in creating these aptitude tests
Q9. Describe the Flynn effect
Q10. Describe “hybrid vigor”
Q11. Describe the reliability of the Stanford-Binet, WAIS, and the WISC
Q12. Explain content validity in reference to a road test for a driver’s license Q13. Are general aptitude tests as predictive as they are reliable? Why?

Q14. Why does the predictive power of aptitude scores diminish as students move up the educational ladder?

HW #66: Due Date
Rd. Pg. 450- Pg. 454
Q1. What did Nancy Bayley speculate about infant behavior?
Q2. At what age do intelligence tests predict behavior school achievement? Why?
Q3. Describe the correlation between GRE and SAT verbal tests?
Q4. Provide an example of how intelligence endures and stabilize?
Q5. Describe the four degrees of mental retardation and how it adapts to the demands of life
Q6. Describe the last half of the century concerning the environment for children with mild mental retardation compared to the first half of the century Q7. What conclusions were drawn concerning Lewis Termanan’s project involving gifted California school children with IQ scores over 135?
Q8. Describe some of the assumptions of currently popular gifted children's programs
Q9. Describe the self-fulfilling prophecy when students are labeled
Q10. What do critics and proponents of gifted education agree on?

HW #67: Due Date
Rd. Pg. 454- Pg. 459
Q1. Illustrate the three sets of findings concerning genetic influences on intelligence
Q2. Describe the findings of adopted children and their adopted families as parental influences wane
Q3. Describe habitability and its impact on the environment
Q4. How do genes and environment correlate?

Q5. What would happen in term so school success if you had a slightly genetically disposed intelligence edge?
Q6. Describe Hunts program of untutored human enrichment
Q7. How does Hunts findings testify to the importance of environment?
Q8. Describe the study of 1450 Virginia schools concerning schools with lots of poverty-level children
Q9. Describe the head start program and if there are nay long term benefits Q10. How does high intelligence and schooling contribute to each other?

HW #68: Due Date
Rd. Pg.459- Pg.464
Q1. What are the two disturbing but agreed upon facts concerning ethnic similarities and differences?
Q2. Describe some specific examples of intelligence test differences in certain groups
Q3. How is habitability attributed to racial differences in intelligence scores? Q4. Is the racial gap similarly environmental, and provide an example of individual differences vs. group differences?
Q5. How would social scientists define race?
Q6. Why Asian students outperforming North America students on math achievement and aptitude tests a recent phenomenon?
Q7. Describe the striking results of a national study that looked back over the mental test performances of white and black young adults after graduation from college

HW #69: Due Date
Rd. Pg.
Q1. Describe gender differences in spelling, verbal ability, nonverbal memory, sensation, underachievement, and math and spatial aptitudes
Q2. Describe the evolutionary perspective in gender differences

Q3. Is there a biological explanation to account for the gender differences? Q4. How do social expectations play a role in shaping boys and girl’s abilities and interests?
Q5. Describe the emotion detecting ability of the women, and how it plays a role in our ancestral past?
Q6. What do the defenders of aptitude testing note about racial group differences? Q7. Why do psychologists believe that the U.S major aptitude tests are not bias?
Q8. Describe the predictive validity of the SAT?
Q9. How does the stereotype threat describe the aptitude of women and blacks under non-threatening and threatening test conditions?
Q10. Why will some students “disidentify” with school achievement?
Q11. Are aptitude tests discriminatory? Why?

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