Ap Psychology Midterm Study Guide

Good Essays
Psychologists formally define learning as:
A) a relatively permanent change in behavior or knowledge that is due to past experience.
The process of learning associations between environmental events and behavioral responses is called:
C) conditioning.
Essentially, classical conditioning is a process of learning:
D) an association between two stimuli.
If you shine a bright light directly into a person's eye, the pupil of the eye will reflexively constrict. Using Pavlov's terminology, the bright light would be termed the _____, and the pupil constricting would be termed the _____.
C) UCS; UCR
Pavlov found that once he conditioned a dog to salivate in response to a tone, a tone that was slightly higher or lower in pitch would also
…show more content…
D) It was a principle formulated by Edward Thorndike that described how voluntary behaviors can be modified by their consequences.
In operant conditioning, reinforcement is:
C) defined by the effect that it produces—increasing or strengthening behavior.
Positive reinforcement _____ the likelihood of a behavior's being repeated. Negative reinforcement _____ the likelihood of a behavior's being repeated.
A) increases; increases
While a primary reinforcer derives its reinforcing value _____, conditioned reinforcers derive their reinforcing value _____.
B) naturally; from primary reinforcers
Negative reinforcement _____ the likelihood of a behavior being repeated, and punishment _____ the likelihood of a behavior being repeated.
B) increases; decreases
Which of the following statements about punishment is FALSE?
D) Punishment is the most effective way to teach or promote new behaviors that are more desirable or appropriate.
Whenever she sees a bolt of lightning streak across the sky, Maria quickly unplugs her computer equipment to keep the equipment from being damaged by an electrical surge. Using operant conditioning terms, the bolt of lightning is
…show more content…
If the dogs have developed learned helplessness, they would most likely respond to another shock by:
B) doing nothing.
According to Focus on Neuroscience, neurons that fire both when action is performed and when action is simply perceived are called:
B) mirror neurons.
Mindy is in nursing school and is learning how to measure a patient's blood pressure. Her instructor first shows the class a video that demonstrates the proper procedures for measuring blood pressure and then demonstrates these same procedures using Mindy as a “patient.” Mindy and her class are learning how to measure blood pressure in patients through the use of:
B) observational learning.
Anthony is studying for his final exam the next day, but a friend calls and invites him to a party. Anthony really wants to go to the party, but he also needs a good grade on his final in order to maintain his standing on the Dean's Honor Roll and increase his chances of getting into medical school. Instead of thinking about how much fun the party will be, Anthony instead visualizes himself as a doctor, treating patients and performing surgery. What self-control strategy is Anthony using?
C) focusing on the delayed

You May Also Find These Documents Helpful

  • Satisfactory Essays

    According to B.F. Skinner Negative Reinforcement increases a response through the removal of a stimulus, usually aversive or hostile one. However, it means that something is being taken away from the situation. It explains the escape behavior of both children and teens in the classroom and elsewhere- making excuses such as “My baby sister spilled juice all over my homework” provide means of escaping from homework. The more aversive a situation is, the more children try to escape. Teachers use strategies to remove the aversive stimuli in the classroom such as yelling at students but it is ineffective overall. Negative reinforcement increases the response that they follow. Punishment decreases it. (ormrod,…

    • 112 Words
    • 1 Page
    Satisfactory Essays
  • Satisfactory Essays

    Positive reinforcement is a technique that is used all the time. Whether you are training your dog or teaching a child, it can be an effective strategy. The objective of positive reinforcement is to reward someone after a desired behavior to encourage the behavior to occur again. The sooner you present the reward after the desired behavior, the more effective the positive reinforcement will be and the quicker the behavior will become a routine. Positive reinforcement can impact behavior more than one may realize. The reward system can multiply the preferred behaviors, as well as increase confidence and motivation.…

    • 255 Words
    • 2 Pages
    Satisfactory Essays
  • Good Essays

    Psychology Concepts

    • 578 Words
    • 3 Pages

    Positive reinforcement, the term means to strengthen, and is used in psychology to refer to anything stimulus which strengthens or increases the probability of a specific response. For example, if you want to train your dog to sit on command, you could give the dog a treat every time he sits for you. The dog will eventually figure out and understand that sitting when told to will ultimately end in getting a…

    • 578 Words
    • 3 Pages
    Good Essays
  • Good Essays

    A negative reinforcer is defined as taking something away that is unpleasant (Ballantyne, Hull, Licht, 2016, p. 192). The definition of punishment is to stop a behavior (Ballantyne, Hull, Licht, 2016, p. 198). An example of punishment is when I use to…

    • 417 Words
    • 2 Pages
    Good Essays
  • Good Essays

    Psychological Concept- punishment-Zakaria, F. (Host), & McCullough, C. (Writer). (2011, May 16). Psychology: reinforcement and punishment [Video file]. Retrieved from…

    • 1404 Words
    • 6 Pages
    Good Essays
  • Satisfactory Essays

    Reinforcement Theory

    • 297 Words
    • 2 Pages

    Reinforcement is a term in operant conditioning and behavior analysis for a process of strengthening a directly measurable dimension of behavior—such as rate (pulling a lever more frequently), duration ( pulling a lever for longer periods of time), magnitude (pulling a lever with greater force), or latency (pulling a lever more quickly following the onset of an environmental event)—as a function of the delivery of a "valued" stimulus (money from a slot machine) immediately or shortly after the occurrence of the behavior.…

    • 297 Words
    • 2 Pages
    Satisfactory Essays
  • Good Essays

    Aspects of Psychology

    • 1088 Words
    • 5 Pages

    Negative reinforcement- An example of this type of reinforcement could be when your parents ask you week after week to clean your room. The reactions you are feeling from your parents are that they are nagging you week after week to perform this task. Then, the next week you clean your room without being told to do so, and you find that the nagging from your parents has stopped. You may consider the nagging your parents are doing as a negative but you will soon see that once you perform this task without being told, the nagging will stop and you will more than likely continue to perform this task week after week without being told.…

    • 1088 Words
    • 5 Pages
    Good Essays
  • Satisfactory Essays

    Negative reinforcement is the strengthening of a particular behaviour by the consequence of experiencing a negative condition…

    • 360 Words
    • 2 Pages
    Satisfactory Essays
  • Good Essays

    Chapter7 Review Ob

    • 599 Words
    • 3 Pages

    • Positive reinforcement – Increased pay after exceptional job performance – Addition of X following a desired behavior • Negative reinforcement – Performing a task to avoid being yelled at – Removal of X following a desired behavior • Extinction – Stop giving attention to the…

    • 599 Words
    • 3 Pages
    Good Essays
  • Satisfactory Essays

    Negative reinforcement works like positive reinforcement except the manager would remove something negative from the situation. A good example of this would be the manager telling the employee your pay will not be docked if you get to work on time. The correct behavior is being rewarded by withdrawing something unpleasant.…

    • 292 Words
    • 2 Pages
    Satisfactory Essays
  • Good Essays

    Positive reinforcement is a type of operant conditioning. According to Cherry, positive reinforcement involves anything that follows a behavior that makes it more likely that the behavior will occur again in the future. Normally The positive reinforcement has a pleasurable outcome. Some examples of positive reinforcement includes after making the sales quota at your job at a dealership so your boss gives you a bonus, receiving a praise from your boss when doing a great job, and awarding your child with a pet for having good grades at school. Sometimes positive reinforcement can be used in a bad way such as a parent giving a child a lollipop to quiet down the unruly child. Instead the lollipop is actually rewarding the child for bad behavior. I use positive reinforcement to increase a desired behavior in my children. If my children bring home good grades, show good behavior, and keep your room clean I reward them. I either reward them with money or something that they would like to do such is going to the movies. I believe that this in feels good values within my children. I want them to know that you have to work for what you want. I also want them to know that hard work reaps benefits. I also reward my children with dessert if they finish all of their dinner. I believe that this helps them associate sacrifice with reward. I believe that positive reinforcement helps me raise my children and teaches them worlds in values. I too was raised with positive reinforcement. Without positive reinforcement children don't feel appreciated for their good work. Whenever I award my children for good behavior they truly appreciate the reward. In return I get the behavior that I want out of my children. I believe that positive reinforcement makes the child work harder for what they want.…

    • 1108 Words
    • 5 Pages
    Good Essays
  • Good Essays

    Essay On Strain Theory

    • 440 Words
    • 2 Pages

    In positive reinforcement, the behavior results in something good, it could be such things as money, the “high from drugs, attention from parents, peer approval or an increase in social status. In negative reinforcement, the behavior results in the removal of a harmful stimuli. A dissatisfying entity being removed.…

    • 440 Words
    • 2 Pages
    Good Essays
  • Powerful Essays

    Psychology of Intervention

    • 2938 Words
    • 12 Pages

    * Positive reinforcement involves the addition of a reinforcing stimulus following a behavior that makes it more likely that the behavior will occur again in the future. When a favorable outcome, event, or reward occurs after an action, that particular response or behavior will be strengthened. One of the easiest ways to remember positive reinforcement is to think of it as something being added. A child who fails to speak in school due to “selective mutism” may be rewarded for speaking with praise, treats, or special privileges.…

    • 2938 Words
    • 12 Pages
    Powerful Essays
  • Powerful Essays

    Importance of Reinforcement

    • 4645 Words
    • 19 Pages

    Reinforcement in its mere sense is the state of receiving or presenting a reinforcer. A stimulus that when presented immediately following a response increases the probability that the response will occur again. It could be the presentation of a reward or removal of something unpleasant.…

    • 4645 Words
    • 19 Pages
    Powerful Essays
  • Good Essays

    Positive Reinforcement

    • 1471 Words
    • 6 Pages

    Reinforcement is a major component when it comes to learning. Without it, the individuals who learn would have difficulty learning from their mistakes and realizing when they do a good job. Reinforcement has a very simple meaning and that is, strengthen. In the field of Psychology, reinforcement refers to anything stimulus that strengthens a response (Ref 5). When it comes to learning, reinforcement can be used in a classroom, outside of the classroom and in most types of experiments. For example, whenever a student scores a high grade on a test, the teacher congratulates him/her. This is an example of a positive reinforcement.…

    • 1471 Words
    • 6 Pages
    Good Essays