PSS Biomes Test

Topics: Soil, Ecosystem, Biome Pages: 7 (1308 words) Published: November 4, 2013
PSS - Test 1
- Biomes
Are plants important for humans?
-food, clothing, shelter, aesthetics, health
- oxygen; captures energy from the sun
- absorption of contaminants from air, soil, & water
-medicines, cosmetics
- erosion control
- web of life

Where do plants grow?
-natural plant systems
-human cultivated systems

Natural plant systems
-areas where plants grow naturally
-ecosystems; many different types occur on Earth
-natural systems are beneficial for humans (ecosystem services)

-human-made, controlled ecosystems
agronomy; grains, agronomic crops, forage
horticulture; fruit/vegetables & ornamental crops -landscaping, vineyards hydrophobic, botanic garden
forestry; timber, resin, syrup
-Original source of plants for cultivated, managed agricultural systems & 'new' plants -naturally

Biome - climatically/geographically defined areas with similar conditions -similar communities of plants, animals, and micro organisms
7 major biomes
Tundra, Taiga, Temperate Forest, Tropical Rainforest, Grassland, Desert, Ocean

Tundra Biome
not so many plants, lots of diverse bacteria
tree growth is restricted by low temps/ short growing seasons
Vegetation - dwarf shrubs, grass, moss, lichens
2 Types of Tundra
Arctic & Antarctica
Alpine - high altitude mts.

Lecture 9/1 - Biomes

Tundra Biome
Permafrost - frozen soil
-soil is frozen in winter
-permafrost melts within a few inches of the surface in the summer.
-only short plants/grasses can grow
-not enough soil for trees to develop

Taiga Biome - Largest Terrestrial Biome
-Russian word meaning 'dense evergreen forest'
-largest terrestrial biome (land based)
-southern parts are termed Boreal forest
-negative fifty to thirty degrees Celsius throughout the year
- 8+ months below 10 degrees celsius
-conifer trees- spruce/ fir
trees grow close together & their dark color helps absorb solar energy to retain heat
few deciduous trees

Temperate Forest Biome
-mid latitude regions of earth
-large difference in temp between winter/ summer months
-the amount of rainfall in an area determines if a forest develops
-4 Layers
1. canopy - uppermost layer with tall mature trees
2. sub-canopy - smaller mature trees and young trees
3. shrub - low growing, woody plants
4. herbaceous - typically the lowest growing and most diverse layer of non-woody plants

Tropical Rainforest Biome
-year round warmth; average annual rainfall is 50 to 260 inches
-more than half of all the worlds living organisms persist in tropical rain forests
-many species have not yet been found or described
-earth's most complex biome
- produces about 30-40% of earths oxygen
-1/4 of all medicines we use come from rain forest plants
-more than 2000 tropical forest plants have been identified by scientists as having anti-cancer properties
-every second a slice of rainforest the size of a football field is mowed down.

Grassland Biome
-plains, prairies, savannas, pampas (south america)
-not enough rain for forest but two much rain to be a desert
-10-50 inches of rain annually

Desert Biome
-for an area to be considered a desert it must receive an annual average rainfall of less than or equal to 10 inches
-almost all ground hugging shrubs and short woody trees
-cacti and sage brush are examples of desert plants

Ocean Biome
largest biome - covering 70% of planet
Sunlight penetration to as deep as 200m
photosynthetic organisms (phytoplankton/algae) persist

Lecture 9/5 - Ecosystem - Climate

Natural Ecosystems
-ecosystems are communities where living (biotic) organisms interact with the nonliving (abiotic) components
-natural ecosystems are very diverse and equally complex; diversity --> complexity --> stability
-the more a crop (agriculture) system differs from a natural ecosystem in an area, the more difficult it...
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