Product placement can be considered a new marketing tool when associated within motion pictures and television. It can result in a more positive brand attitude when the product is associated with a character or group of characters that are preserved to be positive in the eyes of their audience. It is the intention of this study to look at the effects of product placement and it's use in combination with advertising and their effects on the target audience. This literature review is an attempt to view both sides of the controversial issue. Problem Statement
The problem of this study is the effect of product placement, used as a marketing tool, in motion pictures, television, literature, Internet, and in games, and the effect that it has on particular product consumers. Summary of Articles
Shinan Govani is a Toronto-based freelance writer whose work has appeared in George magazine. She was summarized in saying that products don't tarnish a movie; sometimes they enhance it. She justifies this by saying "
these products give movies an indelible imprint of realism. In real life, we eat, drink, wear, and drive brand name products. It's part of our typography." (Govani, 1999) She went on to comment, "Some may disparage this product treasure-hunt mentality, but it's something nearly all of us respond to. Even during the Clinton-Lewinsky saga - the year's most popular movie, according to Neal Gabler, author of "Life: The Movie" - we chuckled at mention of Monica's blue Gap dress or at Clinton taking a swig from a Diet Coke can during his grand jury testimony." (Govani, 1999) Was this planned, was this product placement
no it's real life. David Bauder reported on the controversy and was quoted in saying, "The new technology isn't likely to replace regular commercials", he also reported that when it comes to television, "it's starting to get harder to tell when the ads end and the show begins". (Bauder, 1999) Bauder interviewed several experts and officials in the industry such as Robert Thompson, director of the Center for the Study of Popular Television at Syracuse University, who said, "There is certainly a sense that the bleeding of the commercials into the programs is getting more extreme than it ever has been". For many years, networks took pains to avoid product placement. The results often looked awkward: Actors would drink from a beer bottle with a generic label instead of a Budweiser. Showing actual products may better reflect real life, but the decision on whether to use them should rest with the people making the shows, not with advertisers". (Bauder, 1999) New technology is making product placement in movies easier and easier. Bauder reported, "TV viewers probably barely noticed the Coca-Cola can on a desk and the Wells Fargo billboard in the background of a recent episode of UPN's drama "Seven Days.'' The actors certainly didn't notice --because the soda can and billboard weren't even there when the series was filmed. It was the first prime-time test of a technology that allows advertisers to have products digitally added to a scene, a practice that could blur beyond recognition the line between entertainment and advertising." (Bauder, 1999) He went on to comment, "The product placements were quietly done as an experiment during one episode two weeks ago to gauge viewer reaction. The response is still being evaluated, UPN spokesman Paul McGuire said." (Bauder, 1999) This technology is not just used in television and movies but also in sports, video games, and even literature. "The technology has been used in sports, to add commercial billboards in the background of baseball games." "Although product placement is popular in movies but much less so on television, where there are plenty of opportunities to run full-fledged ads." (Bauder, 1999) "The first Product Placement was in the "African Queen" starring Humphrey Bogart & Katharine Hepburn with a bottle in Gordon's Gin in...
References: Bauder, David (1999, March 30). USA: New Technology Allows Product Placement to Be Added to TV Shows. Corp Watch.
Buss, Dale (1998, June 22). A Product Placement Hall of Fame. Business Week: On-line Original. Retrieved October 8, 2001, from http://www.businessweek.com/datedtoc /1998/ 980622.htm.
Buss, Dale (1998, June 22). You Ought to be in Pictures. Business Week: On-line. Retrieved on October 8, 2001, from http://www.businessweek.com/datedtoc /1998/ 980622.htm.
Hellen, Nicholas and Nuki, Paul(1999, April 25). Product Placement and politics of advertising. Retrieved from http://www.bilderberg.org/product.htm
Rothenberg, Randall (2001)
Sellers, Dennis (1999, November 4). Faous People: GQ, Stanley Mouse, and product placement. MacCentral On-line. Retrieved from http://maccentral.macworld.com/news/9911/04.famous.shtml
Weaver, D.T., & Oliver, M.B
Wells, Melanie (2001, October 29)
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