Papas

Topics: Atom, Chemistry, Chemical bond Pages: 6 (1540 words) Published: June 18, 2013
A. MATTER
* Nature of matter.
* Describe the states of matter and explain their conversion in terms of the kinetic particle theory. * Describe and explain diffusion.
* Describe dependence of rate of diffusion on molecular mass, qualitatively. * Experimental techniques
Measurement.
* Name appropriate apparatus for the measurement of time, temperature, mass and volume, including burettes, pipettes and measuring cylinders. Criteria of purity.
* Identify substances and assess their purity from melting point and boiling point information. * Understand the importance of purity in substances in everyday life.eg. foodstuffs and drugs

B. THE STRUCTURE OF MATTER.
1. Atomic structure.
* State the relative charges and approximate relative masses of protons, neutrons and electrons. * Define proton number and nucleon number.
* Use proton number and the simple structure of atoms to explain the basis of the Periodic Table (Ref. Z=1 to 20) * Define isotopes.
* State the two types of isotopes as being radioactive and non-radioactive. * State one medical and one industrial use of radioactive isotopes. * Describe radioactive isotopes as a source of energy. eg. 235U * Describe the build-up of electrons in `shells` and understand the significance of the noble gas electronic structures and of valency electrons. * Understand that formation of ions implies gain or loss of valence electrons. 2. The Periodic Table.

* Describe the Periodic Table as a method of classifying elements in groups and periods and its use to predict properties of elements. * Recognize different blocks in the Periodic table.

* Distinguish between group and period in relation to electron arrangement of atoms. * Know that elements are represented by symbols and form molecules with fixed atomicity
Periodic trends.
* Describe the change from metallic to non-metallic character across a Period. * Describe the relationship between Group number, number of valency electrons and metallic/non-metallic character. * Describe the trend in reactivity for metals and for non-metals within a group.

Group properties.
* Describe lithium, sodium and potassium in group I as a collection of relatively soft metals showing a trend in melting point, density, in reaction with water. * Predict the properties of other elements in the Group, given data, where appropriate. * Describe chlorine, bromine and iodine as a collection of diatomic non-metals showing a trend in colour, state and their reaction with other halide ions. * Predict the properties of other elements in the Group, given data, where appropriate. * Identify trends in other Groups given information about the elements concerned.

Transition elements.
* Describe the transition elements as a collection of metals having high densities, high melting points and forming coloured compounds, and which, as elements and compounds, often act as catalysts.

Noble gases.
* Describe the noble gases as being unreactive.
* Describe the uses of the noble gases in providing an inert atmosphere (Ar used in lamps, He for filling balloons)

3. Chemical bonding: the structure of matter.
* Describe the differences between elements, mixtures and compounds, and between metals and non-metals. (a) Metallic bonding
* Describe metallic bonding as a lattice of positive ions in a `sea of electrons and use this to describe the electrical conductivity and malleability of metals. * Describe uses of different metals (Cu, Zn, Fe, Sn, Al) related to their properties. * Know that aluminium is a reactive metal that has a protective layer of aluminium oxide that makes it unreactive. * Describe alloys as a mixture of a metal with other elements (metal or graphite) * Describe the composition and uses of bronze, brass, steel and stainless steel. (b)...
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