Packaging is now generally regarded as an essential component of our modern life style and the way business is organized. Packaging is the enclosing of a physical object, typically a product that will be offered for sale. It is the process of preparing items of equipment for transportation and storage and which embraces preservation, identification and packaging of products. Packing is recognized as an integral part of modern marketing operation, which embraces all phases of activities involved in the transfer of goods and services from the manufacturer to the consumer. Packaging is an important part of the branding process as it plays a role in communicating the image and identity of a company.
How can we define Packaging?
Kotler defines packaging as "all the activities of designing and producing the container for a product." Packaging can be defined as the wrapping material around a consumer item that serves to contain, identify, describe, protect, display, promote, and otherwise make the product marketable and keep it clean. Packaging is the outer wrapping of a product. It is the intended purpose of the packaging to make a product readily sellable as well as to protect it against damage and prevent it from deterioration while storing. Furthermore the packaging is often the most relevant element of a trademark and conduces to advertising or communication. Functional Requirements
1. Protection and preservation
A basic function of package is to protect and preserve the contents during transit from the manufacturer to the ultimate consumer. It is the protection during transport and distribution; From climatic effects (heat and cold, moisture, vapour, drying atmospheres); from hazardous substances and contaminants; and from infestation. Protection is required against transportation hazards spillage, dirt, ingress and egress of moisture, insect infection, contamination by foreign material, tampering pilferage etc. A package should preserve the contents in 'Factory Fresh' condition during the period of storage and transportation, ensuring protection from bacteriological attacks, chemical reaction etc.
Most products must be contained before they can be moved from one place to another. To function successfully, the package must contain the product. This containment function of packaging makes a huge contribution to protecting the environment. A better packaging help to maintain the quality of the product and reachability of the product in the consumer's hand without spillages It gives better image to the organisation.
A major function of packaging is the communication of the product. A package must communicate what it sells. When international trade is involved and different languages are spoken, the use of unambiguous, readily understood symbols on the distribution package is essential. It is the interest further that to get appropriate communication to the consumer about the product, how to use it and other utility informations. Packaging protects the interests of consumers. Information includes: quantity; price; inventory levels; lot number; distribution routes; size; elapsed time since packaging; colour; and merchandising and premium data. Types of packaging
An important distinction is to be made here between two types of packaging
o Transport packing: The product entering in to the trade need to be packed well enough to protect against loss damage during handling, transport and storage. Eg: fiberboard, wooden crate etc.
o Consumer Packing: This packaging holds the required volume of the product for ultimate consumption and is more relevant in marketing. Eg: beverages, tobacco etc. Hazards of Transport
There are four main hazards of transport
* Drops and impacts
* Compression forces
* Climatic variations
Various Mechanical Tests
o Drop Test: This test help to measure the ability of the container and inside packing materials...
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