Intelligence has been defined in many different ways including, but not limited to, abstract thought, understanding, selfawareness, communication, reasoning, learning, having emotional knowledge, retaining, planning, and problem solving.
Intelligence is most widely studied in humans, but has also been observed in animals and in plants. Artificial intelligence is the simulation of intelligence in machines.
Within the discipline of psychology, various approaches to human intelligence have been adopted. The psychometric approach is especially familiar to the general public, as well as being the most researched and by far the most widely used in practical settings.
Theories of intelligence
There are many views regarding what constitutes intelligence. Different psychologists have given different view points and formulated their own theories of intelligence. Some important such theories are as follows: • Unitary theory • Two factor theory of Spearman • Multi-factor theory of Thorndike • Group-factor theory of Thurstone • Structure of Intellects by Guilford • Hirarchial theory of Burt-Vernon
Unitary or Monarchy Theory
This theory holds that intelligence consists of all pervasive capacities. According to this theory, if one has a fund of intelligence he can utilise it to any area of his life. The intelligence of a person gets stamped in all what he thinks and acts.
But in our practical life we see contrary to this. A genial mathematical professor may be absent minded or social ill-adjusted.
Further analysis of scores in an intelligence test battery shows that different tests in the battery are not highly correlated. Hence, it is suggested that the unifactory approach is too simple and a complex model is needed to explain intelligence satisfactorily.
Two Factor theory of Spearman
Spearman proposed this Two factor theory of intelligence in 1904.
As the name implies, the theory involves two