• Intelligence: a socially constructed concept that differs from culture to culture.
• One overall ability or many?
• Can it be measured or located by neuroscientists?
• Reify: to treat it as though it were a real object, not an abstract concept.
• Most psychologists now define Intelligence: the ability to learn from experience, solve problems, and adapt to new situations.
• Factor analysis has been used to show that mental abilities tend to form clusters; people show similar levels of competence in all abilities.
• Charles Spearman: (developer of factor analysis) named this general mental ability the ‘g’ factor.
• Howard Gardner: proposed eight independent intelligences o Linguistic (word smarts) o Logical-mathematical (number smarts) o Musical (music smarts) o Spatial (space smarts) o Bodily-kinesthetic (body smarts) o Intrapersonal (self smarts) o Interpersonal (people smarts) o Natural (nature smarts)
• Robert Sternberg: proposed three different types of intelligence o Analytical (academic problem solving) o Creative o Practical
• Four components of emotional intelligence o Ability to perceive emotions; to recognize them in faces, music and stories o Ability to understand emotions; to predict them and how they change and blend o Ability to manage emotions; to know how to express them in varied situations o Ability to use emotions;
• Stretch it too far in regards to intelligence?
• Creativity: the ability to produce novel and valuable ideas
• Correlates somewhat with intelligence test scores, but beyond a score of 120 the correlation dwindles
• Also correlates with expertise, imaginative thinking skills, a venturesome personality, intrinsic motivation, and the support offered by a creative environment.
• Different brain areas for convergent thinking: the type required for intelligence test solutions, and divergent thinking: the type required for multiple imaginative solutions