Nanotechnology, the science of the extremely tiny as commonly known (one nanometer is one-billionth of metre), is an important emerging industry which is thought to reach a market of one trillion US dollars by 2015. It involves the understanding and control of atoms and molecules to create new materials with a variety of useful functions. It is the understanding and control of matter at the sphere of 1 to 100 nanometers (a sheet of paper is about 100,000 nanometers thick). Nanotechnology is a technology executed on the scale of less than 100 nanometers, the goal of which is to control individual atoms and molecules, especially to create microscopic devices and other microscopic things (example: Computer chips). It is a natural result of scientific development, our ability to understand and manipulate matter at smaller and smaller levels. Just as computers have gone from bulky, room filling machines to tiny laptops and palmtops. Nanomaterials are now used in a variety of products, including sporting goods, cosmetics and electronics. The fact that unusual physical, chemical, and biological properties can emerge in materials at the nanoscale makes them particularly appealing for medicine. Scientists hope nanoparticles will be able to improve the effect of drugs and gene therapy by carrying them to the right place in the body and by targeting specific tissues, regulating the release of drugs and reducing damage to healthy tissues. They also envision the possibility of implantable nano devices that would detect disease, treat it and report to the doctor automatically from inside the body. Let us look at the uses of nanotechnology more closely. The uses of nanotechnology
Nanotechnology creates stain repellent clothing. The nano-fibres prevent staining of clothing, the nano-fibres are 10 to 100 nanometers in size and these prevent staining substances from being absorbed in the clothes. One of the most important use of nanotechnology is that it can generate electricity from clothes and paint. The researchers at the university of Toronto have invented a nanoscale infrared-sensitive material that could allow products such as paint and clothes to turn the sun’s energy into electric power. Many vitamins and additives in food are insoluble in water, however if they are converted into nano particle form, they can be easily mixed with water. UV absorbers based on nanoparticulate zinc oxide, are used in cosmetics and sun creams. zinc oxide and titanium dioxide have been included in sunscreen. The nanoparticles are extremely effective at blocking light, particularly in UV range. AnqstroMedica has produced a nanoparticulate-based synthetic bone by manipulating calcium and phosphate at the molecular level. Shaping memory materials
This technology is named as SMM shaping memory materials. Metals and aluminum are reshaped and processed at nano scale to produce a chip, which can store bulk of information on it. Aluminum and silicon distortion was impossible before the arrival of nanotechnology
Metal oxide nanowires as chemical sensors
Another impressive feature of nanotechnology is that it made possible for the scientists to use metal oxides as the sensors. When metal are treated at nano scale they can carry huge amount of electrons and can be used as chemical sensors.
Use of nanomaterials for water purification
Nanotechnology allowed the researchers to process the materials to be used in purification of drinking water such as sand, soil and even glass. Nanomaterials can purify water up to 99.9 percent without affecting the original flavor the water.
Self-assembling the key feature of nanotechnology .there is no other technology in which molecules under processing can rearrange themselves easily. Molecular nanotechnology can produce many new components from the existing ones by simply rearranging themselves.
Miniaturizing mechanical surgery
Nanotechnology introduced such devices,...
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