Surgery has been around for thousands of years. Ever since man has felt pain, man has looked to surgery for relief. It started as a crude hole in the skull, and has evolved into techniques using lasers and robots. One cutting-edge present technology that this paper will explore is the da Vinci Surgical Robotic System , which is being used at Johns Hopkins . This system performs minimally invasive cardiac surgery; it makes the cuts more precise and saves lives. In the future, robotic surgery will become more advanced, as sensory feedback in the da Vinci system could be a future breakthrough that could revolutionize the whole concept of robotic surgery. We envision an improved da Vinci system, with sensory feedback, very precise laser scalpels, and a fully robotic surgery, which will simply be supervised by the surgeon. This approach would lead to less pain, shorter recovery time and a more precise surgery. The system consists of a surgeon console, a computerized control system, three arms that hold tools (such as scalpels, scissors, or electrocautery instruments), and a fiber optic camera. The surgeon is seated at a set of controls and looks through two eye holes at a 3-D image of the procedure, while maneuvering the arms with two foot pedals and two hand controllers. The console uses the surgeon’s hand motions to move to robotic hands inside the patient’s chest cavity. While doing this, the camera gets detailed pictures of the heart and the structures of the heart. This surgical procedure has repaired over 300 mitral valves, and over 150 atrial septic defect closures. It is most commonly used for prostatectomies, cardiac valve repair and gynecologic surgical procedures. The director of the Johns Hopkins Cardiac Surgical Research program, Dr. Yuh believes that “bestowing the sense of touch” to the da Vinci system would help the cardiac surgeons do more safe and effective surgeries. The da Vinci system uses the amount of pressure that one exerts on the system to more effectively make more precise incisions, and more efficient cuts . However the present technology is quite limited. Modern robotic surgery is still more invasive then we’d like. Also, the FDA has shown discomfort with the da Vinci System . They know that the system will allow the surgeon to operate more precisely, but they’ve shown concern. They doubt the safety of the system because if something happens and it stops working, there will be a lot of trouble that the surgeon couldn’t fix. However, on July 11, 2000, the FDA officially declared the system safe, and since then hospitals could use the da Vinci system to perform minimally invasive repair surgical procedures. We would want to make it safer for the future. History
Surgical procedures were first performed in the Neolithic Age, as early as 8000 BC. It started out as trepanation, the procedure in which a hole is drilled into the skull to relieve pressure on the brain. There were carvings found in Egypt dating back to 2500 BC that describe modern surgical circumcision, castration, lithotomy, and amputation. There are also Ancient Egyptian medical texts that provide instructions for surgical procedures such as repairing broken bones and mending wounds. In ancient India, the Hindus surgically treated bone fractures and performed the removals of bladder stones, tumors, and infected tonsils. They are also credited with the development of plastic surgery during the 2000s BC. In the 4th century BC, Hippocrates published descriptions of various surgical procedures. Over the next few millennia, more and more research and advancements in surgery were achieved. The French surgeon Guy de Chauliac published Chirurgia Magna (Great Surgery) in 1316, which describes surgeries, including the repair hernias and the treatment of fractures. Chirurgia Magna is really the text that made surgery become a serious science. There were a great deal of discoveries in surgery in the 16th, 17th, and 18th...
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