This paper will define laparoscopy in general, how a laparoscopic surgery is performed, the different types of laparoscopic instruments and the benefits and risks associated with undergoing a laparoscopic surgical procedure. Laparoscopic surgery has evolved rapidly in the last twenty years and as the field advances there are constant new innovations. Laparoscopy, also known as minimally invasive surgery or videoscopic surgery is an operation performed in the abdomen or pelvis through small incisions with the aid of a camera. There are two types of laparoscope that can be used: a telescopic rod lens system, which is usually connected to a video camera, or a digital laparoscope where a miniature digital video camera is placed at the end of the laparoscope, eliminating the rod lens system. Laparoscopic surgery has allowed surgeons to perform the same procedures as in traditional open surgery, using small incisions instead of large abdominal incisions. A camera and a number of additional laparoscopic instruments are inserted into the peritoneal cavity through the abdominal wall. The vast majority of laparoscopic procedures are led by the establishment of a pneumoperitoneum. Pneumoperitoneum is classically achieved by means of CO2 insufflation by a Verses needle or similar trocar. Generally, this is performed in the periumbilical region. The left upper quadrant site is considered as an alternate access entry if there are any adhesions periumbilically, umbilical hernias or after three failed attempts at insufflations. Once a pneumoperitoneum has been established the camera transmits an image of the organs inside the abdomen onto a television monitor. In this kind of surgery, the video camera serves as the surgeon’s eyes, allowing him to perform certain surgical operations with ease. There are several different types of laparoscopic instruments. Laparoscopic instruments are made of durable materials and usually high quality stainless steel. Instruments all have a very...
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