Leadership Models

Topics: Leadership, Decision theory, Decision making / Pages: 8 (1818 words) / Published: Nov 22nd, 2011
Leadership Models
Jaimie Wimer
University of Phoenix

Leadership Models
The word leadership has different meanings to different people. There appears to be no one exact definition of leadership, just as there is no one exact leadership style. According to Wren (1995) the definition and style can vary depending “on the kind of institution in which it is found” (p. 38). For the purpose of this paper, the models discussed are the trait approach, the diamond model, the normative decision theory, and transformational leadership.
Definition of Models
Trait Theory
The trait theory (also known as the “Great Man” Theory) began around 1910. Clawson (2006) stated that the trait approach “emphasizes the personal traits of leaders” (p. 379). The idea behind the trait theory was that leaders were born, not made. Those who became leaders had a unique trait that nonleaders did not have. In 1948, this theory was debunked by Ralph Stodgill. He proved through research that leadership varied in certain situations (Wren, 1995).
Normative Decision Theory
The normative decision theory has a contingency view of leading and decision making (Nahavandi, 2006). The assumption behind this model is that a leader’s leadership (or decision-making) style varies, depending on the situation (Wren, 1995). Through this theory there are four decision-making styles a leader may use: Autocratic, Consultative, Group, and Delegation. Autocratic decision-making includes very little (or none at all) involvement from followers. Consultation decision-making utilizes followers to consult, but the leader makes the final decision. Group decision-making uses a consensus to make a decision. Delegation decision-making utilizes one individual (not the leader) to make a decision (Nahavandi, 2006).
The Diamond Model
Clawson (2006) introduces the diamond model of leadership in organizations. This model allows for emphasis on individuals, situations, coworkers, strategies, and organizational



References: Avolio, B. J., & Yammarino, F. J. (2002). Transformational and charismatic leadership: The road ahead. San Diego, CA: Emerald. Clawson, J. G. (2006). Level three leadership: Getting below the surface (3rd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall. De Cremer, D. (2007). Emotional effects of distributive justice as a function of autocratic leader behavior. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 37(6), 1385-1404. doi:10.1111/j.1559-1816.2007.00217.x. Kirkpatrick, S. A., & Locke, E. A. (1991). Leadership: Do traits matter? Academy of Management Executive, 5(2), 48-60. doi:10.5465/AME.1991.4274679. Mehmood, Z., & Arif, M. (2011, August). Leadership and HRM: Evaluating new leadership styles for effective human resource management. International Journal of Business and Social Science, 2(15), 236-243. Retrieved from http://www.ijbssnet.com/ Nahavandi, A. (2006). The art and science of leadership (4th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson. Wren, J. T. (1995). The leader’s companion: Insight on leadership through the ages. New York, NY: Free Press. Yukl, G. (2006). Leadership in organizations (6th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.

You May Also Find These Documents Helpful

  • Leadership Model
  • Models of Leadership
  • Leadership Models
  • Leadership Model
  • Leadership Models
  • Leadership Models
  • Leadership Model
  • leadership model
  • Models Of Leadership
  • Leadership Models