University of Phoenix
The word leadership has different meanings to different people. There appears to be no one exact definition of leadership, just as there is no one exact leadership style. According to Wren (1995) the definition and style can vary depending “on the kind of institution in which it is found” (p. 38). For the purpose of this paper, the models discussed are the trait approach, the diamond model, the normative decision theory, and transformational leadership.
Definition of Models
The trait theory (also known as the “Great Man” Theory) began around 1910. Clawson (2006) stated that the trait approach “emphasizes the personal traits of leaders” (p. 379). The idea behind the trait theory was that leaders were born, not made. Those who became leaders had a unique trait that nonleaders did not have. In 1948, this theory was debunked by Ralph Stodgill. He proved through research that leadership varied in certain situations (Wren, 1995).
Normative Decision Theory
The normative decision theory has a contingency view of leading and decision making (Nahavandi, 2006). The assumption behind this model is that a leader’s leadership (or decision-making) style varies, depending on the situation (Wren, 1995). Through this theory there are four decision-making styles a leader may use: Autocratic, Consultative, Group, and Delegation. Autocratic decision-making includes very little (or none at all) involvement from followers. Consultation decision-making utilizes followers to consult, but the leader makes the final decision. Group decision-making uses a consensus to make a decision. Delegation decision-making utilizes one individual (not the leader) to make a decision (Nahavandi, 2006).
The Diamond Model
Clawson (2006) introduces the diamond model of leadership in organizations. This model allows for emphasis on individuals, situations, coworkers, strategies, and organizational
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