Maria E. Garcia
October 17, 2013
During the Revolutionary Period in the early 19th century, the two dominant political parties, the Democratic Republicans and the Federalists, had many conflicting belies. The Federalists believed that the federal government had certain implied powers that were not laid out in the Constitution. The Jeffersonian Republicans, on the other hand, believed that the government did not have the power to do anything that was not granted in the document. The DemocraticRepublicans can habitually be depicted as strict constitutionalists and the Federalists can be seen as broad constructionists, but to a certain extent, this classification of these two parties during the administrations of Jefferson and Madison, from 1801 to 1817, were fallacious as they occasionally strayed from their core beliefs for what they thought may benefit the United States; Jefferson and Madison both stuck to their original political beliefs for the most part, but in certain cases, strayed from these beliefs for the good of their country.
The Federalists, which were originally led by Alexander Hamilton for his opposition to the Democratic Republicans, stressed the need for order, authority, and regularity in the political world. They believed in the idea of a broad interpretation of the Constitution. Northern merchants and commercially oriented farmers tended to form part of this faction; Americans of English stock also conformed the Federal party. Unlike Republicans, thy had no grassroots political organization and emphasized poorly on involving ordinary people in government. One of their most important issues was the great debt that America was going through. Alexander Hamilton saw this situation and proposed that Congress assumes outstanding state debts, combine them with national obligations and pay interests. His aim was to expand the financial research of the U.S, government and reduce economic power of the states. This was opposed by James Madison that argued that there was no state debt since Virginia, his own state, had already paid. Hamilton agreed to change the plan to benefit Virginia. With this, the first part of Hamilton's program became law in August 1790,later leading to the idea of the First Bank of the United States. The conflict that the Republicans argued against this is wether the Constitution gave Congress the power to establish such bank. Which arose to the differences of interpretation of the Constitution. When Hamilton argued that Congress could choose any means not specifically prohibited by the Constitution to achieve constitutional end. Later, the bill became law, and the bank proved successful. Oppositions between these parties grew, thus creating hatred. This is when political parties started a sort of attacks. Since the members of the House of Representatives voted as coherent groups rather than as individuals(factional loyalty) the amount of non aligned congressmen significantly dropped in 1796, which aided the Federalists to control the first three congresses throughout the spring of 1795. In the spring of 1798, the federalists controlled the Fifth Congress and adopted a set of four laws know as the Alien and Sedition Acts, intended to support dissent and prevent further growth of the Republican party. At first they were claimed as being designed to to protect the U.S. from alien citizens of enemy power and to stop attacks from weakening the government, but the Democratic Republicans attacked these laws as being unconstitutional since the Sedition Act did not protected the vice- president, which occurs to be Thomas Jefferson, a Democratic Republican. These Acts were, however, never appealed to the Supreme Court because they had no rights of judicial review, which were issued by president John Marshal, until 1803 in the case known as Marbury v. Madison. In the case, he ruled that Marbury had a right to his commission of a writ of mandamus but that the court could not...
Please join StudyMode to read the full document