Top-Rated Free Essay

Human Resource Development

HUMAN RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT

Ques. No. 01

A. Describe the major functions in a Human Resource Development framework of an organization.

According to American Society for Training and Development (ASTD), "HRD is the integrated use of:- 1. training and development, 2. organizational development, and 3. Career development to improve individual, group and organizational effectiveness."

The ASTD study documented a shift from the more traditional training and development topics to a function that included career development and organization development issues as well. The study depicted the relationship between HRM and HRD functions as a “human resource wheel”. The HR wheel identifies three primary HRD functions:

1) Training and development,
2) Organization development, and
3) Career development.

Training and Development (T&D)
Training and development (T&D) focuses on changing or improving the knowledge, skills, and attitudes of individuals. Training typically involves providing employees the knowledge and skills needed to do a particular task or job, though attitude change may also be attempted.

Organization Development
Organization development (OD) is defined as the process of enhancing the effectiveness of an organization and the wellbeing of its members through planned interventions that apply behavioral science concepts. For example, many organizations have sought to improve organizational effectiveness by introducing employee involvement programs that require fundamental changes in work expectations, reward systems, and reporting procedures.

Career Development
Career development is “an ongoing process by which individual’s progress through a series of stages, each of which is characterized by a relatively unique set of issues, themes, and tasks. Career development involves two distinct processes: career planning and career management.

B. Explain with your own view – “An Organization can gain a little from its HRD process for its inappropriate career and work system even after implementation of a very good development system for its human resource”.

HRD functions are carried out through its systems and sub systems. HRD has five major systems.
1. Career system
2. Work system
3. Development system
4. Self-renewal system
5. Cultural system

1. Career system: Career system ensures attraction and retention of human resources through the following sub-systems. • Manpower planning • Recruitment • Career planning • Succession planning • Retention

2. Work system: Work-planning system ensures that the attracted and retained human resources are utilized in the best possible way to obtain organizational objectives. Following are the sub systems of the work planning system. • Role analysis • Performance plan • Performance feedback and guidance • Performance appraisal • Promotion • Job rotation • Reward

Ques. No. 2

A. Define learning and discuss any two of the adult learning principles.

Definition of Learning
1. Learning is an experience that occurs inside the learner and is activated by the learner
2. Learning is the discovery of the personal meaning and relevance of ideas
3. Learning (behavioral change) is a consequence of experience
4. Learning is a co-operative and collaborative process
5. Learning is an evolutionary process
6. Learning is sometimes a painful process

Eight adult learning principles
• Adults like to learn in a self-conscious way.
• Adults learn best if the subject meets their needs.
• Adults learn best by doing.
• Adults learn through experiences.
• Adults bring their own opinions to the learning environment.
• Adults learn best in a non-formal atmosphere where they can feel accepted and supported by the trainers and other trainees.
• Adults learn by solving the problems relevant to their lives.
• Adults can easily adapt to different teaching methods. They prefer not to receive grades.

Experiences
The most effective learning is from shared experience, either by discussing participants’ past experiences or by developing new experiences through practical exercises in the field. Participants learn from each other and the facilitator often learns from the participants.

Reflection
Maximum learning from a particular experience occurs when a person takes the time to reflect back upon it, draws conclusions and derives principles for applying to similar experiences in the future.

B. Difference Between Education and Learning
Training and education are both different facets of learning. At first, it may be difficult to tell the difference between them, especially in today’s school system, but there are major differences in training and education. Their purpose, history, and methodology are all vastly different.

Training is undertaken in the hopes of gaining a specific skill. Generally this skill will make you more employable. These skills can be manual.

Education is undertaken in the hopes of furthering your individual knowledge and developing your intellect. While a highly educated person is often more employable, education is not about getting a job.

In brief:
• Education is a formal system of learning that is long while training is a method that makes a person skilled in a particular job or task only
• Both education and training are necessary to make concepts clear to a person
• Some professions are highly training dependent where education alone cannot make a difference

Ques. No. 3

A. Define Training Need Assessment (TNA)
The purpose of a training needs assessment is to identify performance requirements and the knowledge, skills, and abilities needed by an agency's workforce to achieve the requirements. An effective training needs assessment will help direct resources to areas of greatest demand. The assessment should address resources needed to fulfill organizational mission, improve productivity, and provide quality products and services. A needs assessment is the process of identifying the "gap" between performance required and current performance. When a difference exists, it explores the causes and reasons for the gap and methods for closing or eliminating the gap. A complete needs assessment also considers the consequences for ignoring the gaps.

B. Why TNA is important?
It’s the training manager’s job to make sure the people in the organization have the skills they need to meet the organization’s objectives. The Training or Learning Needs Analysis (TLNA) is a primary tool to identify which skills the organization needs to develop in its people.

• A good TLNA will help you make sure that the training/learning interventions you put in place are highly targeted • It’s a valuable tool to make sure you are spending your training budget in the best way • It will help you understand the ‘performance gap’ at the individual, team and organizational levels

To sum up, training needs assessment is a gap between 'what is' and 'what ought to be'. You can rightly say that TNA is related to individual and organizational performance. Needs analysis helps in identifying and solving the performance problems related to knowledge, skills and attitudes. There are many tools to conduct the TNA. They include questionnaire, survey, participatory learning and action.

C. Briefly explain the different methods of TNA

Organizational Analysis
To align training with business strategy and to ensure there are resources and managerial support for training.

Task Analysis
To identify the important work-related tasks and knowledge, skills, behaviors, abilities (KSBAs); determine if the content and activities are consistent with trainee on-the-job experience; and to develop measurable and relevant content, objectives and methods.

Person Analysis
To ensure that trainees have the basic skills, motivation, prerequisite skills or confidence.

Ques. No. 4

A. List out the methods of training.
Methods of Training
• Lecture
• Lecture/discussion
• Skill lesson
• On-the-job training (the four-step method)

There are other methods of training, but their effective use is specific to special training situations and will not be discussed in this lecture. Some of those methods include:
• Role play
• Assignment
• Case study
• Training games
• Group exercises
• Programmed learning

B. What factors would you like to consider for selection of a training method?
All the resources at your command must be used to make your instruction real and vital for your trainees. The number and types of training methods you use during any presentation depend on many factors, and you must therefore have answers to the following questions before you decide how you will present your material.

• What is the ability and level of knowledge of the group?
• How many trainees are in the group and why are they there?
• How much time do you have to prepare your material?
• Can you cover your topic fully in the time available?
• What aids do you require?
• Do you have the experience to use these aids with confidence?
• Are you aware of the limitations of aids?

Ques. No. 5

A. What do you understand by training evaluation? Why is it important?

Definition of Training Evaluation

Training • Involves learning • implies learning to do something • it results in things being done differently

Evaluation • It is a process of establishing a worth of something. • The ‘worth’, which means the value, merit or excellence of the thing

Training Evaluation
According to Hamblin (1970) defined evaluation of training as:
“Any attempt to obtain information (feedback) on the effects of training programme and to assess the value of training in the light of that information for improving further training”.

Importance of Training Evaluation
Evaluation of training could be multipurpose
1. To determine the extent and degree of a training programme fulfilling its set objectives and interalia indication
2. The suitability and feasibility of the objectives set for training
3. Provide feedback on the performance of the trainees, and training staff, the quality of training, other facilities provided during training
4. Identify and analyze whether the training inputs, training techniques and methods were in line with the objectives intended to be achieved through training
5. Enable improvements in the assessment of training needs
6. Aid the learning process of the trainee by providing knowledge of results
7. Provide a self-correcting feedback system to improve the design and implementation of current and future training
8. Highlight the impact of training on the behavior and performance of the individual
9. Determine the cost benefit returns from training investment
10. Judge the impact of training for organizational benefits

B. Discuss the different levels of training evaluation in light of ensuring effective learning process through a training program?

Ques. No. 6
a. Discuss counseling as a human resource development process.
b. Define employee counseling. What factors should you consider for an effective counseling process?
c. Differentiate between wage and salary.
d. According to your opinion which type of employee counseling is more effective.
f. What are the factors that influence wage payment or wage determination?
g. Discuss the various methods of wage payment or Various types of wages.

Ans:
A. Discuss counseling as a human resource development process.

Ans:
The Counseling Process In HRD

Step 1. Describe the changed behavior. Let the employee know that the organization is concerned with work performance. The supervisor maintains work standards by being consistent in dealing with troubled employees. Explain in very specific terms what the employee needs to do in order to perform up to the organization’s expectations. Don’t moralize. Restrict the confrontation to job performance.

Step 2. Get employee comments on the changed behavior and the reason for it. Confine any negative comments to the employee’s job performance. Don’t diagnose; you are not an expert. Listen and protect confidentiality.

Step 3. Agree on a solution. Emphasize confidentiality. Don’t be swayed or misled by emotional please, sympathy tactics, or “hard-luck” stories. Explain that going for help does not exclude the employee from standard disciplinary procedures and that it does not open the door for special privileges.

Step 4. Summarize and get a commitment to change. Seek commitment from the employee to meet work standards and to get help, if necessary, with the problem.

Step 5. Follow up. Once the problem is resolved and a productive relationship is established, follow up is needed

B. Define employee counseling. What factors should you consider for an effective counseling process?

Ans:

Definition of Employee Counseling
Counseling is a process through which one person helps another by purposeful conversation in an understanding atmosphere. It seeks to establish a helping relationship in which the one counseled can express their thoughts and feelings in such a way as to clarify their own situation, come to terms with some new experience, see their difficulty more objectively, and so face their problem with less anxiety and tension. Its basic purpose is to assist the individual to make their own decision from among the choices available to them.

Factors of Effective Counseling
Active listening, which involves attentively listening to the words an employee is saying and observing the nonverbal behaviors and manners to address internalized thoughts and feelings.
Responding to the employee verbally and non-verbally.
Questioning should be open-ended.
Qualities of an effective counselor are as follows:
Respect for person being counseled. Mutual respect improves the chances of changing (or maintaining) behavior and achieving outlined goals.
Self-awareness and cultural awareness. Must be fully aware of values, needs and biases prior to counseling employees. Self-aware supervisors are less likely to allow their biases to influence the counseling process.
Empathy. Empathy allows you to see the situation from the other person's view.
Credibility. Supervisors achieve credibility by being honest and consistent in their statements and actions.

C. Differentiate between wage and salary.

Ans:
Difference Between Wage and Salary
It is important to understand the difference between wages and salaries. A wage is based on hours worked. Employees who receive a wage are often called "non-exempt." A salary is an amount paid for a particular job, regardless of hours worked, and these employees are called "exempt."

The difference between the two is carefully defined by the type of position and the kinds of tasks that employees perform. In general, exempt employees include executives, administrative and professional employees, and others . These groups are not covered by minimum wage provisions. Non-exempt employees are covered by minimum wage as well as other provisions.

It is important to pay careful attention to these definitions when determining whether an individual is to receive a wage or a salary. Improper classification of a position can not only pose legal problems, but often results in employee dissatisfaction, especially if the employee believes that execution of the responsibilities and duties of the position warrant greater compensation than is currently awarded.

D. According to your opinion which type of employee counseling is more effective.

Ans:
Employee Counseling Effective
Co-operative/Participative Counselling: This is a compromise between the above two extreme types of counselling. It is a mutual contribution for diagnosing a problem, analysing the problem and then looking for a solution. It is a mutual counsellor - counselee relationship where both participate to find a solution. Here an exchange of ideas takes place between the two. Both the participants provide a bit of knowledge, experience and insight and thus it is a case of balanced compromise.

F. What are the factors that influence wage payment or wage determination?

Ans:
Factors of Wage and Salary Determination
The problem of how to determine wages within individual organizations is complex. There are many factors to consider and many sources of information. Although there are several internal processes, and influential factors of wage determination, what is examined below are the external factors that influence wage determination. External factors are those that operate outside of, and are beyond, the influence of any individual organization.

Nonunion Wage Determination Wages in nonunion organizations are generally determined using a system, which first analyzes the content of the various and specific jobs. This analysis is conducted using both conventional and quantitative techniques. The purpose is to collect sufficient data that will be used to describe the jobs that were analyzed.

Job Content A wage (compensation) structure based on job content is concerned with the skills, duties, and responsibilities required for success in the incumbent jobs.

Job Value A structure based on job value determines wages (compensation) through an analysis of the worth of the incumbent jobs, in relation to their contribution to the goals of the organization.

External Forces It is important to remember that organizations do not operate in isolation and that forces that are external to individual organizations may influence each of these wage structures.

Outside Wages and Wage Communities Outside wages can affect the internal wage structures, and therefore wage rates and levels, of individual firms also affect individual wage rates.

Market Influences Unemployment rates (occupational and overall) in the labor market influence wages through their affect on the organization´s ability to attract and retain employees.

Cost of Living Conversely, some organizations may be more able to keep wages at a certain level, in line with increases in the cost of living. The measure of cost of living is valid in determining regional pay differentials.

Legislative Influences Legislative factors are determined outside of individual organizations and affect wages. Legislative influences include labor standards, and specifically minimum wages.

In examining the external factors that influence nonunion wage determination, it has been shown that it is a complex matter. The various factors that were examined are; the influence of outside wages, occupational and overall unemployment rates, the product/service market, the labor market, general economic conditions and the cost of living, legislative factors, and the spillover effect of unionism.

G. Discuss the various methods of wage payment or Various types of wages.

Ans:

Various Method of Wage Payment There exist several methods of employee wage payment and incentive, which can be classified under the following headings: 1. Time Rate systems 2. Piece Rate system 3. Combination of time and piece rate system 4. Premium bonus method

Time Rate System Under this system, the workers are paid on the basis of time spent in the factory. No consideration is given to number of units produced. Wages=Time spent (in hours/days/weeks/months) *Rate per hour /day/week/month

Piece Rate System Under this system, a specified of wages is fixed per unit of output. The workers are paid on the basis of their work i.e. on the basis of number of units produced without taking into account the time involved.

Combination of Time and Piece Rate System (a)Gantt’s Task and Bonus Plan Under Gantt’s bonus plan system, time wages are guaranteed to every worker. If a worker takes more time than the standard time to perform the task (i.e. efficiency is below 100%) He is given wages for the time taken by him. If a worker takes the standard time to perform the task (i.e. if his efficiency is 100%) He is given wages for standard time + Bonus @ 20% on wages earned. If a worker completes the task in loss than standard time (i.e. if his efficiency is above 100%) He is given piece wages for actual output + Bonus @ 20% of piece wages.

Ques. No. 7
a. What do you understand by “training management”/
b. What are the good characteristics of a trainer?
c. How can you differentiate among the roles of a mentor, manager, supervisor and trainer?

A. What do you understand by “training management”/

Training Management
A training management system is software packages that can help your organization manage training design and delivery, as well as materials and individual participant progress.
The application of knowledge, skills, tools and techniques to training activities to realize the outcome of training.

b. What are the good characteristics of a trainer?
Becoming a good trainer means learning to draw on your abilities and skills to train those who need your help.

Here are some of the traits of successful and effective trainers.

Good Communications Skills

• Use clear and concise language to instruct, direct and coach • Use your active listening skills to draw them out and fully understand them • Maintain eye contact

Solid understanding of the subject • Comprehensive understanding of the subject or skills • Willingness to draw from your background as a bridge or foundation to teach • Willingness to grow and update your professional development

Experience • It helps if you have done the job personally (and well would be good too) • Previous experience in training

Patience • New people can make mistakes while they learn • It often takes a few tries to get it right (keep up encouragement) • Remember how it was for you when you started out?

Interest in being a trainer • You need to ‘truly’ enjoy helping people • Seeing people grow and learn makes you feel good • Seeing others’ success gives you a sense of pride and satisfaction

Genuine respect for other people • People view you as being knowledgeable (you model it) • People view you as being trustful and trustworthy (you’ve earned it)

Well developed sense of humor • You see the humor in the situation (you express it) • You don’t take yourself or life too seriously (you lighten it)

a. Mentor, Manager, Supervisor and Trainer
Role of Mentor • Teaches the mentoree about a specific issue • Coaches the mentoree on a particular skill • Facilitates the mentoree’s growth by sharing resources and networks • Challenges the mentoree to move beyond his or her comfort zone • Creates a safe learning environment for taking risks • Focuses on the mentoree’s total development
Role of Manager
Planning: This step involves mapping out exactly how to achieve a particular goal. When the plan is in place, the manager can follow it to accomplish the goal of improving company sales.
Organizing: After a plan is in place, a manager needs to organize her team and materials according to her plan. Assigning work and granting authority are two important elements of organizing.
Staffing: After a manager discerns his area's needs, he may decide to beef up his staffing by recruiting, selecting, training, and developing employees.
Leading: A manager needs to do more than just plan, organize, and staff her team to achieve a goal. She must also lead.
Controlling: After the other elements are in place, a manager's job is not finished. He needs to continuously check results against goals and take any corrective actions necessary to make sure that his area's plans remain on track.

Role of Supervisor
A supervisor plays multiplinary role at one time like -
As a Planner - A supervisor has to plan the daily work schedules in the factory.
As a Manager - It is righty said that a supervisor is a part of the management team of an enterprise. He is, in fact, an operative manager.
As a Guide and Leader - A factory supervisor leads the workers by guiding them the way of perform their daily tasks.
As a Mediator - A Supervisor is called a linking pin between management and workers. He is the spokesperson of management as well as worker.
As an Inspector - An important role of supervisor is to enforce discipline in the factory.
As a Counselor - A supervisor plays the role of a counselor to the worker’s problem.

Role of Trainer 1. Defining the apprentice’s tasks 2. Assigning tasks to apprentices 3. Taking tasks from an apprentice 4. Assigning and distributing tasks between several apprentices 5. Making judgments relevant for the youth's future

Ques. No. 8
a. Importance of HRD functions b. Learning objectives
c. Techniques of determining TNA d. Management Development
e. Task analysis f. Active learning
g. Training and Development h. Case Study
i. Participatory method j. Training aids
k. Essentials of Performance Appraisal l. 360 Degree Appraisals
m. Wage Survey n. Non-Financial Incentives
o. Principles of Natural Justice p. Principles of Wage
q. Exparte Enquiry r. Defects in traditional performance appraisal method
s. Incentive Payment t. Halsey Plan vs. Rowan Plan

a. Importance of Human Resource Development:
• Human Resource Development reinforce the executive Skills by marketing people aware about the skills required for job performance and by outlining performance standards.
• It uploads career planning and ensure all around growth of employees.
• It makes utilization of manpower by employing right man to right job at right time.
• It is two ways process and establishes congenital growth of employees.
• It is action oriented. Employee’s contributions are rewarded handsomely.
• It facilitates human resource planning and control by maintaining update data about the manpower for present and future use.
• It fights resistance to changes and employees become accommodating and willing to accept the change.
• It brings about an atmosphere of mutual trust and confidence leading to overall better performance.
• It maintains transparency in administration.
• It encourages people to show innovation while solving problems and also take calculated risks

b. Learning Objective
A learning objective is an outcome statement that captures specifically what knowledge, skills, attitudes learners should be able to exhibit following instruction. A common misapplication of objectives is for the teacher/presenter to state what he/she is going to do (e.g., “My plan this morning is to talk about…”), rather than what the student is expected to be able to do (e.g., “After this session, you should be able to…”).

C. Techniques of Determining TNA
There are a number of practical methods you can use to gather data about employees’ performance. Each works well in given circumstances; therefore, you must determine which the best be for you. None of these methods can stand alone. Always use at least two, if for no other reason to validate your findings. One of those you choose should always be observation.

D. Management Development
Management Development is best described as the process from which managers learn and improve their skills not only to benefit themselves but also their employing organizations. Management development includes:
• Structured informal learning: work-based methods aimed at structuring the informal learning which will always take place
• Formal training courses of various kinds: from very specific courses on technical aspects of jobs to courses on wider management skills
• Education: which might range from courses for (perhaps prospective) junior managers or team leaders

E. Task Analysis

"Task analysis for instructional design is a process of analyzing and articulating the kind of learning that you expect the learners to know how to perform". Instructional designers perform a task analysis in order to: 1. determine the instructional goals and objectives; 2. define and describe in detail the tasks and sub-tasks that the student will perform; 3. specify the knowledge type (declarative, structural, and procedural knowledge) that characterize a job or task; 4. select learning outcomes that are appropriate for instructional development; 5. prioritize and sequence tasks; 6. determine instructional activities and strategies that foster learning; 7. select appropriate media and learning environments; 8. Construct performance assessments and evaluation (Jonassen et al., 1999).

1. Observation
In this approach, evaluate an employee’s performance through first-hand observation and analysis.

2. Interviews
Interviews allow you to meet employees face to face to discuss their impressions of performance. Because you are in conversation with workers, you can explore their responses in depth.

3. Questionnaires
A questionnaire is a sort of interview on paper. The key advantage of a questionnaire is that you can include every person from whom.

4. Job Descriptions
Before establishing a job description, a job analysis must be made. When an employee’s job description has been defined, the trainer can easily tailor his training curriculum to a very close proximity of what will be expected of the employees.

5. The Difficulty Analysis
The Job Analysis will focus attention on enumerating the numerous duties that a worker must perform.

6. Problem Solving Conference
Another time-tested technique for gathering needs analysis material from employees is to conduct periodic problem solving conferences which may take the form of or be part of a plan for a new product, task or technology, or tied in with a training program

7. Appraisal Reviews
During the periodic counseling performance interview, an employee should be questioned regarding the duties and training of a worker.

F. Active Learning

Defining "active learning" is a bit problematic. The term means different thing to different people, while for some the very concept is redundant since it is impossible to learn anything passively.

Basic Elements of Active Learning

There are four basic activities through which all students learn, and specific active learning strategies use one or more of these elements.

Talking and Listening

Writing

Reading

Reflecting

G. Training and Development

Training and development is vital part of the human resource development. It is assuming ever important role in wake of the advancement of technology which has resulted in ever increasing competition, rise in customer’s expectation of quality and service and a subsequent need to lower costs. It is also become more important globally in order to prepare workers for new jobs. In the current write up, we will focus more on the emerging need of training and development, its implications upon individuals and the employers.

H. Case Study

Case study refers to the collection and presentation of detailed information about a particular participant or small group, frequently including the accounts of subjects themselves. A form of qualitative descriptive research, the case study looks intensely at an individual or small participant pool, drawing conclusions only about that participant or group and only in that specific context. Researchers do not focus on the discovery of a universal, generalizable truth, nor do they typically look for cause-effect relationships; instead, emphasis is placed on exploration and description.

K. Essentials of Performance Appraisal
Performance Appraisal can be done with following objectives in mind: 1. To maintain records in order to determine compensation packages, wage structure, salaries raises, etc. 2. To identify the strengths and weaknesses of employees to place right men on right job. 3. To maintain and assess the potential present in a person for further growth and development. 4. To provide a feedback to employees regarding their performance and related status. 5. To provide a feedback to employees regarding their performance and related status. 6. It serves as a basis for influencing working habits of the employees. 7. To review and retain the promotional and other training programmes.

L. 360 Degree Appraisal
360 degree feedback is also known as multi-rater feedback or multi-dimensional feedback or multi-source feedback. It is a very good means of improving an individual’s effectiveness (as a leader and as a manager). It is a system by which an individual gets a comprehensive/collective feedback from his superiors, subordinates, peers/co-workers, customers and various other members with whom he interacts.
Advantages of 360 Degree Feedback 1. It is an effective medium for improving customer service and the inputs quality to the internal customers. 2. It encourages participation of all and thus makes HR decisions more qualitative. 3. It pinpoints the favoritism and biases of the supervisors present in conventional appraisal systems. 4. The employees find 360 degree feedback more acceptable than the traditional feedback approaches. 5. 360 degree feedback is more impartial and objective than a one-to-one assessment of employee traits. 6. It concentrates and stresses upon internal customer satisfaction. 7. It broadens the scope for employees to get various says for enhancing their job role, performance, and views. 8. It can act as a supplement and not replacement to the conventional appraisal system. 9. It can be motivating for the employees who undervalue themselves. 10. It encourages teamwork. 11. It is more credible as various people give almost same feedback from various sources. 12. It brings into limelight the areas of employee development as it confirms the employee strengths and identifies his weaknesses on which he can work upon.

It creates an environment of trust and loyalty in an organization.

Ques. No. 9 a. Define Performance Appraisal?
Ans:
Performance appraisal is the process of obtaining, analyzing and recording information about the relative worth of an employee. The focus of the performance appraisal is measuring and improving the actual performance of the employee and also the future potential of the employee. Its aim is to measure what an employee does.

According to Flippo, a prominent personality in the field of Human resources, "performance appraisal is the systematic, periodic and an impartial rating of an employee’s excellence in the matters pertaining to his present job and his potential for a better job."

b. Discuss briefly the role and responsibilities of HR department in performance appraisal.
Ans:
HR plays a great role in Performance Appraisal. First and foremost HR can ensure that performance appraisal is conducted in free and fair manner. To avoid subjective assessment, HR can devise SMART KRAs.

Planning
· Know the process and the system
· Schedule a planning meeting and give the process the time and quality it deserves.
· Review all steps of the planning process.
· Share unit goals, objectives and projects and competencies.
· Review duties, responsibilities and objectives for each position.
· Establish and communicate performance standards.
· Encourage employee input throughout the meeting.
· Make sure expectations for the future are clear and understood by both parties.
· Agree upon regular check-ins for coaching and feedback with employee
· Approve Performance Agreement.

Monitoring
-Provide frequent informal coaching.
· Monitor employee performance throughout the year via informal review sessions.
· Review performance plans for progress and agree on revisions as necessary.
· Gather input and performance data from all available sources.
· Document observations and interventions in a log. This will be useful during the assessment meeting.
· Acknowledge good performance through feedback. This will keep the employee motivated.

Developing
· Initiate and facilitate personal development planning meetings with employees.
· Determine how to improve or develop knowledge, skills and abilities.
· Creatively plan and support learning opportunities.
· Link development plan to a performance plan for each staff member.
· Monitor adherence to the Personal Development Plan.

Assessing
· At least twice a year formally review the performance of employees, and provide feedback.
· Set up formal meetings for assessment
· Encourage employee input.
· Assess progress against each performance and development objective set for the year.
· Complete analysis and rate progress on each competency.
· Review assessment with second line manager as needed.
· Provide open, honest and constructive feedback to employee on performance.
· Always provide positive reinforcement.
· Complete final assessment and communicate final rating

PA measures the personal efficiency. Going beyond, HR can also measure efficiency of organisation as a whole. Efficiency of total manpower gives idea of effectiveness of the manpower that the organisation has employed.

c. List the methods used in appraising performance. Briefly discuss the MBO approach.
Ans:
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MBO Method
The concept of ‘Management by Objectives’ (MBO) was first given by Peter Drucker in 1954. It can be defined as a process whereby the employees and the superiors come together to identify common goals, the employees set their goals to be achieved, the standards to be taken as the criteria for measurement of their performance and contribution and deciding the course of action to be followed.

UNIQUE FEATURES AND ADVANTAGES OF MBO

The principle behind Management by Objectives (MBO) is to create empowered employees who have clarity of the roles and responsibilities expected from them, understand their objectives to be achieved and thus help in the achievement of organizational as well as personal goals.

Some of the important features and advantages of MBO are:

▪ Clarity of goals – With MBO, came the concept of SMART goals i.e. goals that are: Specific Measurable Achievable Realistic, and Time bound. The goals thus set are clear, motivating and there is a linkage between organizational goals and performance targets of the employees.

▪ The focus is on future rather than on past. Goals and standards are set for the performance for the future with periodic reviews and feedback.

▪ Motivation – Involving employees in the whole process of goal setting and increasing employee empowerment increases employee job satisfaction and commitment.

▪ Better communication and Coordination – Frequent reviews and interactions between superiors and subordinates helps to maintain harmonious relationships within the enterprise and also solve many problems faced during the period.

d. Why should an organization appraise employee performance? Or Purpose of Performance Appraisal.

Ans:
Performance Appraisal is being practiced in 90% of the organisations worldwide. Self-appraisal and potential appraisal also form a part of the performance appraisal processes.

Typically, Performance Appraisal is aimed at:
• To review the performance of the employees over a given period of time.

• To judge the gap between the actual and the desired performance. • To help the management in exercising organizational control. • To diagnose the training and development needs of the future. • Provide information to assist in the HR decisions like promotions, transfers etc. • Provide clarity of the expectations and responsibilities of the functions to be performed by the employees. • To judge the effectiveness of the other human resource functions of the organization such as recruitment, selection, training and development. • To reduce the grievances of the employees. • Helps to strengthen the relationship and communication between superior – subordinates and management – employees.

Ques. No. 10 a. “Job evaluation is a systematic process of determining the worth of a job” – Explain.
Ans:
In the words of Edwin B. Flippo, "Job evaluation is a systematic and orderly process of determining the worth of a job in relation to other jobs." Job evaluation analyzes and assesses the jobs systematically to find out their relative worth in a organization. A Job evaluation is conducted on the basis of their contents and is arranged important-wise. This helps to prepare wage differentials among different jobs. Job evaluation is an exercise to rank jobs and not job holders. Job evaluation has wide scope and it is used globally. It is relevant to all jobs and organizations. Job evaluation is done before the appointment of employees. Job evaluation is not compulsory but voluntary to the organizations. Organizations that opt for job evaluation can appoint internal and external experts on the committee. The factors considered for job evaluation are: responsibility, qualification, experience, working conditions and so on. We can more understand of the above stated line by defining the objective of Job Evaluation 1. It is a method of eliminating inequalities. 2. It provides a sound base for wage differentials for different jobs. 3. It eliminates personal grudges in fixing of wage rates. 4. Job evaluation provides appropriate salary structure. 5. It facilitates wage survey and comparison of different wage structures. 6. It forms a basis for fixing incentives and different bonus plans. 7. Job evaluation assists in specifying functions, authority and responsibility. 8. Job evaluation serves as a useful reference for setting individual grievances regarding wage rates. 9. It provides a benchmark for comparing job structures and facilitates career planning.

b. Define job evaluation. Why jobs are evaluated in an organization?
Ans:
Definition of Job Evaluation
Job evaluation is a process of determining the relative worth of a job. It is a process which is helpful even for framing compensation plans by the personnel manager. Job evaluation as a process is advantageous to a company in many ways:

1. Reduction in inequalities in salary structure. 2. Because of division of labour and thereby specialization, a large number of enterprises have got hundred jobs and many employees to perform them. 3. The job evaluation information can be helpful at the time of selection of candidates. 4. Harmonious relationship between employees and manager 5. The process of determining the salary differentials for different jobs become standardized through job evaluation. 6. Through job evaluation, one can understand the relative value of new jobs in a concern.

According to Kimball and Kimball,“ Job evaluation represents an effort to determine the relative value of every job in a plant and to determine what the fair basic wage for such a job should be.”
Thus, job evaluation is different from performance appraisal. In job evaluation, worth of a job is calculated while in performance appraisal, the worth of employee is rated.

Purpose of Job Evaluation 1. It is a method of eliminating inequalities. 2. It provides a sound base for wage differentials for different jobs. 3. It eliminates personal grudges in fixing of wage rates. 4. Job evaluation provides appropriate salary structure. 5. It facilitates wage survey and comparison of different wage structures. 6. It forms a basis for fixing incentives and different bonus plans. 7. Job evaluation assists in specifying functions, authority and responsibility. 8. Job evaluation serves as a useful reference for setting individual grievances regarding wage rates. 9. It provides a benchmark for comparing job structures and facilitates career planning.

c. Name the different methods of job evaluation with the description of Point Rating Method or any one. Ans:
Difficult jobs have more worth. The skill, competence and knowledge required for performance of certain jobs is not available easily because of scarcity. Such jobs also have more worth. Jobs having more worth carry higher salary. Whatever the nature of jobs, they are to be evaluated. There are five basic methods of job evaluation. They are: 1. Ranking method. 2. Grading method. 3. Point method, 4. Factor comparison method and 5. Computerized method

Out of these five methods, the first two i.e. ranking and grading methods are non quantitative methods and the other two methods i.e. point and factor comparison methods are quantitative or analytical methods.

1. Ranking Method
It is a simple method of job evaluation. Under ranking method a committee is constituted. The committee composed of executives and representatives of employees. The simplest job evaluation method ranks each job relative to all other jobs, usually based on some overall factor like “job difficulty”. There are several steps in the job ranking method. 1. Obtain job information. Job analysis is the first step 2. Select and group jobs 3. Select compensable factors 4. Rank jobs 5. Combine ratings

Merits of Ranking Method 1. The method is quite simple and easy to understand. Employees can understand it easily. 2. It is the most suitable method for small size organizations. 3. It does not require much cost. Hence less expensive.

Demerits of Ranking Method 1. Ranking is done on subjective judgment. 2. There is every likelihood of bias judgment in ranking of jobs. 3. It is silent on how the one job is different from another. 4. It only gives rank but does not specify the degree of importance.

2. Grading Method
Grading method is also a non-quantitative method. It is also known as job classification. This method is improvement over ranking method. Under this method predetermined scale or grade is provided.

Merits of Grading Method 1. This method is quite simple and can be easily understood by the employees. 2. It is flexible method. 3. It can be applied to large number a variety of jobs.

Demerits of Grading Method 1. It is less flexible hence not suited for large organizations having multiplicity of jobs. 2. With the increase in jobs, their grading becomes difficult. 3. The method relies heavily on job title instead of detailed verification of job contents.

3. Point Method This is widely used method of job evaluation. Under this system a manual is prepared highlighting the various factors such as education, skill, competence, knowledge, training responsibility, job conditions, complexity, hazards, coordination, physical and mental efforts, mechanical ability etc. The mechanism of the system works in the following manner. 1. Determination of jobs to be evaluated 2. Number of factors 3. Division of factors into degrees 4. Assigning point values degree 5. Job evaluation

Merits of Point Method 1. Analyses of job factors make it possible have a measure of value of job. 2. Workers of the organization favour the system. 3. It is less manipulative and free from human bias. 4. It makes possible to place jobs in different categories. 5. The scales developed in the process can be used for long time.

Demerits of Point Method 1. It is very expensive method and hence it is not suitable for small organizations. 2. It is time consuming. 3. Assigning point value to the factors is also difficult. 4. It is not simple to understand. 5. A lot of clerical work is involved in recording rating scales.

4. Factor Comparison Method
This method is mostly used in evaluating professional and managerial practices. It is a combination of ranking and point methods. The mechanism for evaluating jobs under this system involves following steps: 1. The job factors are selected and defined precisely. 2. Key jobs are selected. Key jobs include those which belong to the range of jobs under consideration. 3. Wages are fixed for various compensable factors of each key job. 4. All the jobs are compared with key jobs and evaluated factor by factor. 5. A wage structure is prepared, designed and implemented.

Merits of Factor Comparison Method 1. It is systematic method of evaluating manual, clerical and supervisory positions. 2. It is more objective method of job evaluation because arbitrary weight age is not given 3. It is a comparative process of rating the jobs against numerical benchmark. 4. It is easy to understand.

Demerits of Factor Comparison Method 1. It is highly expensive system of job evaluation since experts are to be employed. 2. The employees find it difficult to understand. 3. The jobs are evaluated on the basis of comparative analysis of five factors only which are inappropriate. 4. Under this method the job evaluation is done by expert. The top management has to rely on them. 5. It is quite difficult to assign weight age to each factor.

5. Computerized Method
CAJE-computer-aided job evaluation-can streamline this process. Computer aided job evaluation, says one expert, can simplify job analysis, help keep job descriptions up to date, increase evaluation objectivity, reduce the time spent in committee meetings, and ease the burden of system maintenance. CAJE includes electronic data entry, computerized checking of compensable factor questionnaire responses, and automated output of job evaluations and of a variety of compensation reports.

Ques. No. 11 a. What is discipline and disciplinary action?
Ans:
Definition of Discipline
Counseling or other employment action (including imposition of sanctions) undertaken to correct or modify unacceptable job performance or behavior to acceptable standards. Disciplinary measures authorized to be imposed upon staff employees including an oral or written reprimand, suspension without pay (not to exceed 10% of the gross amount payable for any payroll period) or dismissal from employment.

Definition of Disciplinary Action
A disciplinary action is defined as an admonishment or a written reprimand.

b. Differentiate between positive and negative discipline.
Ans:
Positive discipline

Positive discipline is encouraging. It makes allowances for the fact that children need time to learn what behaviour is ok and what is not, and that they will make mistakes. Here are some key ingredients in positive discipline. It

• establishes and maintains clear boundaries • notices and rewards positive behaviour • uses reasonable penalties in response to negative behaviour
Positive discipline has a positive effect on children and teenagers: It shows them how to improve their behaviour without making them feel that they themselves are bad.

Negative discipline

Negative discipline focuses on what children are doing wrong. It relies for control on children's fear of adults power. Its methods are unfair, harsh and often inconsistent, and are based on punishment. It teaches what is wrong, but seldom explains what is right or acknowledges good behaviour.Negative discipline has a negative effect on children: It makes them believe not just that they have done wrong, but that they themselves are bad.

c. Explain various stages of disciplinary procedure.
Ans:
While disciplining an employee, it is always important to make sure that the disciplinary action meted out to the offender is always commensurate to the offence committed. Like earlier said too, it is important to mete out the same punishment to the same category of offenders. Another important thing in punishing offenders is that the person must be given the opportunity to be heard. He must explain reasons for his action before a decision is taken against him. Certain mild offences should also be punished with mild penalties. Some disciplinary actions in firms include;

•€€€€€€€ Oral warning; when an offence is not that serious or when an offender is a first offender, he can be given oral warning. The human resources person invites him, talks to him, cautions him and warns him to desist from such actions in the future.

•€€€€€€€ Written warning: When the offence committed by the employee is not an offence that you can just warn him verbally and let him go, he is issued a query. He replies the query and explains reasons for his action. The query and his response are filed in the staff file for future references. After considering his response, a written warning also is issued to him and a copy of the warning letter also documented in the staff file.

•€€€€€€€ Loss of entitlement: Some indiscipline is cautioned by denying the offender his or her entitlement as a reprimand for the action. In some cases, the offender may not be paid any allowance or bonus due to him to punish him for an offence or indiscipline committed.

•€€€€€€€ Suspension: If an offence is strong, they employee may be suspended without pay. Depending on the level of offence the suspension may take up to two months or more without pay.

•€€€€€€€ Demotion: A staff can be demoted from his position because of indiscipline. If a manager for instance keeps on coming to work late, how will he lead and control his subordinates? The best thing is to demote him if he has been advised about it and he fells to change.

•€€€€€€€ Termination of appointment: When an employee commits an offence that the company cannot condone, his appointment may be terminated.

•€€€€€€€ Dismissal: This is the strongest action that can be carried out on an offender. When an employee gets involved in fraud, stealing, illegal business etc the firm may have no other option left than to dismiss him out rightly.

Disciplinary action is always carried out in sequence. For instance if one is a first offender, and the offence is not so bad, he can be warned verbally. Then if he commits another offence, he is queried and probably suspended from duty without pay. If another offence is committed by the same staff, his appointment may be terminated. On the other hand when a staff commits a grievous offence like fraud, the punishment is summary dismissal.

Ques. No. 12
a. Define personnel research and evaluation.
b. Why personnel research is important in an organization? Or uses and needs of Personnel Research.
c. Discuss briefly at least five areas in which research may be undertaken for improving employees.

Ques. No. 13 a. What is Personnel Record?
Ans:
Personnel Records are records pertaining to employees of an organization. These records are accumulated, factual and comprehensive information related to concern records and detained. All information with effect to human resources in the organization are kept in a systematic order. Such records are helpful to a manager in various decisions -making areas.

Personnel records are maintained for formulating and reviewing personnel policies and procedures. Complete details about all employees are maintained in personnel records, such as, name, date of birth, marital status, academic qualifications, professional qualifications, previous employment details, etc.

b. List out the information that should be in the Personnel Record.
Ans:
Information of Personal Record 1. Records of employment contain applicants past records, list sources, employee’s progress, medical reports, etc. 2. Wages and salaries records contains pay roll records, methods of wages and salaries, leave records, turnover records and other benefit records. 3. Training and development contains appraisal reports, transfer cases, training schedule, training methods. 4. Health and safety records include sickness reports, safety provisions, medical history, insurance reports, etc. 5. Service Records are the essential records containing bio-data, residential and family information, academic qualifications, and marital status, past address and employment records.

c. Discuss briefly the essentials of effective record keeping.
Ans:
According to the critics of personnel records, this system is called as a wastage of time and money. According to personnel records, followers of this : Dale Yoder, an economist of Michigan University, USA has justified the significance of personnel records after making an in-depth study. 1. It helps to supply crucial information to managers regarding the employees. 2. To keep an update record of leaves, lockouts, transfers, turnover, etc. of the employees. 3. It helps the managers in framing various training and development programmes on the basis of present scenario. 4. It helps the government organizations to gather data in respect to rate of turnover, rate of absenteeism and other personnel matters. 5. It helps the managers to make salary revisions, allowances and other benefits related to salaries. 6. It also helps the researchers to carry in- depth study with respect to industrial relations and goodwill of the firm in the market.
Therefore, personnel records are really vital for an organization and are not a wasteful exercise.

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