10a) Suggest reasons for the changes shown in the size and distribution of megacities
Megacities, with a population of at least 10 million, have grown in number to 26 in 2009. This is because of the general growth in world population and especially the g r o w t h in NICs such as India, Brazil and Indonesia. Their Economic growth has increased rapidly due to industrialisation which has encouraged rural-urban migration to escape rural poverty. This has increased the size of some megacities to over 20 million such as Mumbai in India. In India hyper-urbanisation seems to have occurred as some cities have grown from less than 10 million to over 20 million in less than 25 years, e.g. Mumbai and Delhi. This must be due to huge rural-urban migration and internal growth. Growth in Latin America must be slower as Sào Paulo, Rio and Mexico City were already megacities in 1985. Also, in the developed world some cities have become global hubs such as New York and Tokyo and this has attracted more elite migrants from around the world to work in TNC headquarters, banks and the NYSE. The distribution of megacities has shifted dramatically to the southern hemisphere and the east, especially in southeast Asia. This is due to the role of TNCs such as Tesco that have invested millions of dollars of FDI into the infrastructure and services of NICs like Taiwan, South Korea and China as part of the general global shift in industry to Asia. This has improved the countries' connections and outsourcing has created jobs which have encouraged people to move to cities. Especially in India, this has led to the growth of five megacities by 2009 whereas there were none in 1985. In the North this rapid growth occurred in the 1800s so is not happening now as most developed countries are fully urbanised. However, there has been a change in Europe as London and Paris are megacities in 2009 but were not in 1985. This could be the result of urban regeneration which has made these cities more...
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