Social Structure 1. Nobility – Maharlika 2. Freemen – Timawa 3. Serfs – Aliping namamahay 4. Slaves – Aliping sagigilid
Barangay - A unit of social organization that is broader than the family’s political, economic and religious features.
Datu/Rajah/Sultan - exercise all the powers of government including the religious power - he is assisted by the Pandays and Babaylans together with the council of elders in instituting reforms and development.
Judicial process (composed of the council of elders) - arbitration is the common ways of resolving disputes - Public trial (“May the crocodile eat me if I tell a lie. May the lightning strike me if I tell my falsehood”). - Trial by ordeal – to show that God with His infinite wisdom, protect the innocent and punish the guilty (e.g., ordeal by wrestling or “bultong” in fugao)
Religious belief - people worship according to the dictate of their conscience. The priest (Katalona) or the Priestesses (Babaylan) performed sacrifices. Example: Canao
Economic and standard of living - agriculture and trade
- Father trained his son to be hunters, builders, etc. - Mother trained her daughter do household task.
End of the reconquestas (wars against the moors) 1492 • Paved the way for the great voyages including the discovery of the New World (America) for Spain • Purtagal and Spain – two keen rivals in colonizing new lands because of gold, spices, and other merchandise found in the orient, as well as their religious zeal to proselyte the native. • Pope Alexander VI – issued a “papal bull” or “Inter Caetera”, a decree to settle the rivalry giving the west to Spanish zone for exploration and all lands East to Portugal. • Magellan (Portuguese) – conceived the idea of a passage to the west or around south America to reach Moluccas or Spice Islands following the wind directions and Ocean tides.
Marianas Island or Islas Ladrones (Island of thieves)
Suluan Island – stay overnight
Islet of Humunu (Homonhon) at the mouth of the Leyte Gulf, meet natives from neighboring island of Suluan.
Masao, Butuan, Agusan del Norte - the fleet landed on March 28, 1521 - performed kasi-kasi (Rajah Kolombu) on March 29, 1521 - first mass was held on March 31, 1521
Sugbo Cebu - with King Kolombu, Magellan performed kasi-kasi with Rajah Humabon who later on was baptized due to Christian teaching of honoring parents
Council of Indies (Concejo de Indios) - through which Spain administered political affairs in the Philippines - vested with the legislative, executive, and judicial powers
Governor-General - appointed by the viceroy of Mexico and later by the Spanish Monarch (King) - Captain General - Vice-royal Patron - President of the Royal Audiencia (Supreme Court) - head of the central government
Provinces: 1. Alcaldea – a pacified provinces headed by the alcalde mayor 2. Corregemiento – Unpacified provinces headed by corregidores/military officers.
Pueblos: 1. Ayuntamiento – city/cities headed by the cabildo (composed of 1 or 2 mayor/s, chief constable & secretary) 1. Munisepyo/municipal government – headed by the gobernadorcillo (the highest position that a Filipino can held during the Spanish colonization
Barrio – barangay headed by the cabiza de barangay
Visitador-General - The investigating officer sent by the King of Spain to check the conditions and look into administrative complains against the government officials.
Sources of government funds - Incomienda System - political jurisdiction by which the King of Spain granted rights to incomiendas (incomienderos) who are supposed to help in the settlement of a country as a reward of service - Incomiendero – collect taxes, promote the welfare of the inhabitants and assist missionaries (catholic proselyter).
Economy - founded on the medieval concept of master and slave relationship (landlord-tenant) - Indulto de commercio – the privilege by the alcalde mayor to control prices of goods - Bandala – assignment of annual quotas to each province for compulsory sale of products to the government - Real Compania de Filipinas – established in 1785 through a Royal Decree issued by King Charles III of Spain to promote direct trade with Spain and incouraged local agriculture and industry. - Polo – forced labor (male ages 16 – 40 years old rendered manual labor)
The Rise of Filipino Nationalism 1. Spread of liberalism 2. Sentiment against the principales (political aristocracy) 3. Racial prejudice (native could not rise beyond their limited intelligence) 4. Cultural changes (illustrados) 5. Secularization controversy 6. Cavite mutiny of 1872
A. Propaganda Movement - unified nationalist movement due to the emergence of more Filipino illustrados
Aim: peaceful assimilation (transition of the Philippines from being a colony to a province of Spain
Reasons: 1. Equality of Filipinos and Spaniards before the law 2. Restoration of the Philippine representation in the Spanish Cortes 3. Secularization of the Philippine parishes and expulsion of the friars 4. Human rights for Filipinos 5. Freedom of speech 6. Freedom of the press and freedom to meet and petition for redress of grievances
B. Katipunan - led by radicals who believed that the welfare of the people could not be achieved by request for reforms but by an armed revolution
Aim: transformed the Philippines from assimilation to separation and then independence
Organizational structure: 1. Central government – Kataastaasang Sangunian (Supreme Council) 2. Provincial government – Sanguniang Bayan (Provincial Council) 3. Town government – Sangguniang Balangay (Popular Council) 4. Secret Chamber – Sangguniang Hukuman (Judicial Council)
Three Grades of Membership 1. Katipun (associate) – wore a black masked at the meetings and used a password: anak ng bayan or sons of the people as their identity. 2. Kawal (soldier) – wore green masked and used GOMBURZA as their password 3. Bayani (Patriot) – wore a red masked and their password is Rizal
Fees: 1. Entrance fee – real fuerte (twenty-five centavos) 2. Monthly due –medico real (about twelve centavos)
Female members were admitted 1. Josefa – elected President of the women’s chapter known as La Semilla 2. Trinidad 3. Gregoria de Jesus
C. Biak-na-Bato Republic - Provisional Constitution of the Philippine Republic
Pact of Biak-na-Bato a) Program b) Act of Agreement c) Question of indemnity
D. Dictatorial Government - a new government that revoke the authority of the Biak-na-Bato Republic and unite the revolutionary forces - Expedient to carry out the war successfully
E. Revolutionary Government - replace the dictatorial form of government after the proclamation of independence on June 12, 1898. - 6 days after the proclamation of independence, Aguinaldo began organizing the town and provincial government and elected members of Congress from those provinces.
End of July - Arrival of nearly 12,000 American troops from San Francisco to reinforce Dewey’s forces. - Spanish ceded to United States – Treaty of Paris in 1898
F. Malolos Republic - government seat of power move to Malolos, Bulacan from Bacoor, Cavite - revolutionary Congress was inaugurated in the Barasoin Church in Bulacan on Sept. 15, 1898 - Malolos Constitution was proclaimed as the fundamental laws of the land on January 21,1899 by Aguinaldo American Colonization
Treaty of Paris in 1898 - peace agreement ending the Spanish – American war (Spain ceded Guam; Puerte Rico; and Philippines to United States of America) - pull out of the Spanish military forces in the Philippines - United States had to pay $20 million to Spain - Ended the Spanish colonization and the beginning of the American colonization in the Philippines. - official colonization of the Philippines came after signing of this treaty
Schurman Commission (first commission) January 20, 1899 - Announced the extension of US sovereignty over the Philippine after Gen. McArthur captured Malolos
Taft Commission (second commission) March 16, 1900 - US government paid $7.2 million to the Vatican for lands held by religious orders. - empower the native to decide for themselves on domestic matters and primary education was extended to all as part of the Americanization
Cooper Act - first congressional law for the Philippine government known as the Philippine Organic Act of 1902 was enacted - provided the extension of the United States Bill of Rights to the Filipinos - guaranteed the establishment of an elective Philippine Assembly after the publication of census -
General Vicente Lukban – ambushed the American soldiers
General Jacob Smith – ordered the massacre of all men and children above ten years of age
Sedition Law, Brigandage Act, Reconcentration Act, and Flag Law - anti-natonalist law to assert the American sovereignty in the Philippines.
Philippine Assembly - inaugurated on October 16, 1907 with Sergio Osmena as Speaker of the assembly and Manuel L. Quezon as majority floor leader
Provincial Code or Act No. 83 - an act that established the different provinces throughout the archipelago to be headed by the Governor - a Governor together with the provincial Treasurer and Supervisor were elected by the municipal councils in the province for a term of two years.
Supreme Court - Headed by the Chief Justice is composed of 9 justices, six of whom where Filipinos and all the rest including the chief justice were Americans.
Jones Law of 1916 - was considered as the constitutional compact between the American and the Filipino people - Among others, it provides for the American withdrawal of sovereignty over the Philippines, establishment of the legislature to be fully controlled by Filipinos but not the executive and the judicial branches of government.
Os – Rox Mission - Bring home the Hare-Hawes Cutting Act after being sent to United States for Philippine representation and asked for the implementation of the long overdue withdrawal of American sovereignty over the Philippines. - it showed the ability of Filipino officials to bargain with US colonizers
Hare-Hawes-Cutting Act - Was rejected by the Filipino legislature because of its contentious provision. - It empower the President of United State of America to determined and retained land and properties in the Philippines for their military used, free entry of American goods and a twelve year transition period without specifying when the twelve year period will start.
Tydings-McDuffie Law (1934) - Another law enacted in US Congress after the Hare-Hawes-Cutting Act was rejected by the Filipino legislatures. - Among others, it provides for the drafting of a new Constitution to be ratify by the majority votes of the Filipinos and approved by the President of United States - leads to the election of 202 ConCon (Constitutional Convention) delegates which was headed by Claro M. Recto to draft the 1935 constitution - an establishment of the Commonwealth government for a ten year transition period upon the approval of the new Philippine Constitution which may served as the basis for its establishment. Thus, paved way for the establishment of all the branches of government fully controlled by Filipinos. However, foreign trade and the Philippine currency were still under the control of the American President.
President Quezon and Vice-President Osmena - Served as the first President and vice-President of the Commonwealth government respectively upon the full establishment of the transition government on November 15, 1935.
Three Revisions of the 1935 Constitution: 1. Tenure of office of the President and Vice-President 2. Establishment of the Bicameral Congress (National Assembly) 3. Creation of the independent Commission on Election (COMELEC)
JAPANESE COLONIZATION • 1943 Constitution • KALIBAPI • PCPI
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