Overarching concept of violence:
Violence is a social problem which is not limited to any particular society. It is a social plague that has far reaching consequences and one which affects the very heart of any society. According to the World Health Organization (WHO) World Report on Violence and Health 2002, violence is defined as: …the intentional use of physical force or power, threatened or actual against oneself, another person, or against a group or community, that either results in or has a high likelihood of resulting in injury, death, psychological harm, maldevelopment or deprivation. In this report, further differentiation was made in the ways, which violence may be inflicted: physical, sexual and psychological attack and deprivation and from this definition reference was made to ‘interpersonal violence’; that is, violence between individuals and, this is further divided into family and intimate partner violence and community violence (WHO 2002). In light of the above introductory definition, the intent this paper is to focus on interpersonal violence, with specific reference to intimate partner violence or ‘domestic violence’ particularly in Trinidad and Tobago. This paper seeks to explore the theoretical perspectives proffered by the symbolic interactionist, feminist and functionalist, as it relates to the social issue of domestic violence; causes and effects of the issue, programmes formulated and implemented and omissions and gaps that may exist. It also offers possible solutions to the way forward, as is applicable to Trinidad and Tobago.
(The United Nations Declaration on the Elimination of Violence against Women, General Assembly Resolution, December 1993) reported that: “Violence against women is a manifestation of historically unequal power relations between men and women, which have led to domination over and discrimination against women by men and to the prevention of the full advancement of women...” Additionally, Khan (2000) stated that for a lot of persons, ‘home’ is where they are faced with the terror of violence by an individual who is close to them; a person whom should be trusted. Individuals exposed to domestic violence often suffer physically and psychologically. Those affected are unable to make independent decisions or forward their opinions or protect themselves for fear of further repercussions. Their basic human rights are denied and their lives are engulfed in turmoil and constant threats of violence. Although both men and women are victims of domestic violence, one of the most deeply held assumptions is that violence against women is different from violence against men. It is also construed that women are most affected by domestic violence. The media, organizational and support groups and various facets of society often promote the prevention of violence amongst women and children and while this holds true; the media has also been linked to promoting negative modelling and images, which may encourage violence. Research suggests that the motives for violence against women are similar to the motives for violence against men, which is to gain control and/or to promote or defend self-image. The motives play a role in almost all violence, regardless of gender.
Conceptualizing domestic violence:
As far as, domestic violence rests upon the notion of a “domestic group” as a point of reference, it has become an almost indefinable concept. Nevertheless, there have been several attempts to define domestic violence to the extent that valid guidelines can be used across the definitions to formulate a basis for reconciling differences emanating from the diverse attempts to measure prevalence and other interesting dimensions of this social issue. To briefly engage in a broader Caribbean perspective of how domestic violence may be defined, Clarke (2001) evaluated domestic violence legislation in Antigua and Barbuda, Saint Lucia, St. Kitts and Nevis and Saint Vincent and the Grenadines and...
Bibliography: (CSO), C. S. (1996). Report on Crime Statistics . Trinidad and Tobago: Ministry of Planning and Development.
(DVU), D. V. (February 26, 1998). Findings of Data Collected on Domestic Violence from the Domestic Violence Hotline. Policy Round table on data Collection on Domestic Violence.
Viewpoint, Rape and Domestic Violence. (1997, November 23). Sunday Guardian.
Women Against Violence Hold Candlelight Session Tomorrow. (1997, November 24). Newsday.
(1999). National Report on the Situation of Gender Violence Against Women: Trinidad and Tobago Regional Project RLA/97/014. (UNDP) United Nations Development Programme.
Agnew, R. (1992). Foundation for a General Strain Theory of Crime and Delinquency. Journal of Criminology, Volume 30, 50-58.
Anthens, L. (1994). The Self as Soliloquy. Sociological Quarterly, Volume 35, 521-532.
Athens, L. (1995). Dramatic Self Change. Sociological Quarterly, Volume 36, 571-586.
Athens, L. (1997). Violent Crime Acts and Actors Revisited. Chicago: University of Illinois.
Bagoo, A. (2009, November 11). Domestic Deaths Rise. Newsday.
Blumer, H. (1969). Symbolic Interactionism: Perspective and Method. Englewood Cliffs NJ: Prentice Hall.
Bowker, L. H. (1986). Ending the Violence. Holmes Beach Florida: Learning Publications.
Browne, A. (1987). Battered Women Who Kill. New York: Free Press.
CAFRA. (1998). Pilot survey on the incidence of violence and responses to such violence among 200 randomly selected women in Trinidad. St. Augustine: CAFRA.
Carden, A. (1994). Wife Abuse and the Wife Abuser. The Counseling Psychologist, Volume 22, 539-573.
Chevannes, B. (May 1996). The role of the street in the socialization of Caribbean males. Annual Conference of the Caribbean Studies Association. San Juan.
COMMITTEE, C. D. (1997, December 1st). Retrieved March 4th, 2012, from http://www.eclacpos.org/cdchtm/G0511.HTM.
Creque, M. (1995). A Study of the Incidence of Domestic Violence in Trinidad and Tobago from 1991-1993: Commissioned by the Shelter for Battered Women and the Coalition Against Domestic Violence. Trinidad: Port of Spain.
Denzin, N. K. (1984). Toward a Phenomenology of Domestic, Family Violence. American Journal of Sociology, Volume 90, 483-513.
Dobash, R. E. (1979). Violence Against Wives: A Case Against Patriarchy. New York: The Free Press.
Edwin M, L. (1951). Social Pathology: A systematic approach to the theory of sociopathic behaviour. New York: Mc Graw Hill.
Ehrensaft, M. M. (2004). Clinically abusive relationships in an unselected birth cohort: Men 's and women 's participation and developmental antecedents. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 113(2), 258- 271.
Gelb, J. (1983). The Politics of Wife Abuse. In I. Diamond, Families, Politics and Policies (pp. 250-264). New York: Longman.
Johnson, M. (1995). Patriarchal terrorism and common couple violence: Two forms of violence against women. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 57, 283-294.
Khan, M. (Volume 6, 2000). Domestic Violence Against Women and Girls. UNICEF Innocenti Digest.
L. Kevin Hamberger, C. R. (1994). Domestic Partner Abuse. Violence and Victims, Volume 9.
Lempert, L. B. (1994). A Narrative Analysis of Abuse: Connecting the Personal, the Rhetorical and the Structural. Journal of Contemporary Ethnography, Volume 22, 411-441.
Loseke, D. R. (1992). The Battered Woman and Shelters: The Social Construction of Wife Abuse. Albany: Albany State University of New York Press.
Mead, G. H. (1934). Mind Self and Society. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.
Michael Gottfredson, T. H. (1990). A General Theory of Crime . Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
Mohammed, P. (1989). Women 's responses to the 70s and 80s in Trinidad: a Country Report. Caribbean Quarterly, 35 (1-2): 36-45.
Nicholls, T. L. (2001). Abuse committed by women against male intimates. Journal of Couple Therapy, 10, 41-57.
Organization, W. H. (2002).
Pagelow, M. (1984). Family Violence. New York: Praeger.
Pagelow, M. (1987). Application of Research to Policy in Partner Abuse. Family Violence Research Conference for Practitioners and Policy Makers. Durham: University of New Hampshire.
Pharr, S. (1988). Homophobia: A weapon of sexism. Little Rock: Chadon Press.
Russell, D. E. (1982). Rape In Marriage. New York: Mac Millan.
Schecter, S. (1982). Women and Male Violence. Boston: South End Press.
Stets, J. &.Straus, M. (1992). The marriage license as a hitting license. (originally published in 1989). New Brunswick, N.J: Transaction Publishers.
Stets, J. E. (1988). Domestic Violence and Control. New York: Springer- Verlag.
Straus Murray, R. G. (1980). Behind Closed Doors: Violence in the American Family. Garden City, NY: Doubleday.
Straus, M. (1983). Ordinary Violence, Child Abuse and Wife Beating: What Do They Have in Common? In D. F. al., The Dark Side of Families: Current Families Violence Research (pp. 213-234). Beverly Hills CA: Sage.
Tierney, K. (1982). The Battered Women Movement and the Creation of the Wife Beating Problem. Social Problems, 29: 207-220.
Yelvington, K. A. (1996). Flirting in the Factory. Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute, 2: 313-333.
Please join StudyMode to read the full document