Topics: Byzantine Empire, Crusades, First Crusade Pages: 2 (537 words) Published: June 5, 2013
Over the centuries many significant wars have faced political and economic turmoil. The significant wars are The Crusades, World War II, and The Persian war. The years leading up to the end of the eleventh century in Western Europe and Eurasia saw several different social, political, and economic factors that collectively contributed to the start of the First Crusade in 1096. Perhaps one of the most obvious and leading factors is the role that religion, specifically Christianity, played in everyday life of the citizens in Western Europe. Also, a break down in central authority contributed to a sense of disorder after the year 1000. The economic system in Europe was in a state of transition as well as continuing struggles for land and power. Another factor would be the defeat of the Byzantine army at Manzikirt by the Seljuk Turks in 1071, which led to Alexius Comnenus seeking assistance of Western mercenary troops. In addition, papal reform also contributed to the First Crusade. The first of the Crusades began in 1095, when armies of Christians from Western Europe responded to Pope Urban II's plea to go to war against Muslim forces in the Holy Land. After the First Crusade achieved its goal with the capture of Jerusalem in 1099, the invading Christians set up several Latin Christian states, even as Muslims in the region vowed to wage holy war (jihad) to regain control over the region. Deteriorating relations between the Crusaders and their Christian allies in the Byzantine Empire culminated in the sack of Constantinople in 1204 during the Third Crusade. Near the end of the 13th century, the rising Mamluk dynasty in Egypt provided the final reckoning for the Crusaders, toppling the coastal stronghold of Acre and driving the European invaders out of Palestine and Syria in 1291. By the end of the 11th century, Western Europe had emerged as a significant power in its own right, though it still lagged far other Mediterranean civilization such as that of the Byzantine...
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