Consumers have a number of abiding images of themselves. Those self-images are very closely associated with personal characteristics, memories and experiences which are determinants of the influences of self-reference and involvement on consumer behavior. Marketers have long tried to appeal to consumers in terms of self-reference and involvement, because according to Bettman, Capon and Lutz. consumers combine involvement and self-reference with information about product attributes and consequences to form product evaluations and to make brand choices (as cited in Celsi and Olson, 1988). There is no accurate definition of involvement in marketing. Some people think involvement is just a mental feeling of people, but other researchers also commended that involvement as a factor provoking consumers in a special environment by recognition or personal interest that people create between content of persuading stimulus and their life to product (Ghafelehbashi, Asadollahi and Nikfar, 2011; Wu, 2002). Self-reference has been described as a cognitive process inducing relative significance where consumers associate self-relevant incoming information with information previously stored in memory (Bellezza 1981, Kuiper and Rogers 1979, Markus 1977, 1980, Rogers 1981) or her/his self-expectation or experiences in order to give the new information meaning (Burnkrant and Unnava, 1995). There are many possibilities have influences on Consumer thoughts, feeling, buying decision (Neshat, Omid and Ahmad, 2013), leading to “consumer behavior”. The first part of this essay will demonstrate some types of self-references, then what are the benefits form those various types of self-reference and finally show you how to use self-reference into consumer behavior. It will then describe the detail of involvement in relation to introducing different styles of involvement and the functions and roles of different involvements. 2. Self-reference
2.1 Previous versus present research of self-reference
4 type of self-reference
Link ad to stored memory/experience/knowledge
Previous research focused evaluation of self-referent advertisement on matching personal knowledge with advertising (Dimofte and Yalch, 2010). However, in the current research divide self-reference into two categories retrospective and anticipatory. Retrospective (with reference to reminiscence from one’s past) includes more thoughts with contextual details than anticipatory (imagination in one’s future) self-referencing does (Loken, 2006), depending on the extent of prior experience. Consumers with frequent experiences have an illusion of detail matching in retrospective self-referencing resulting from schema-driven memory intrusions induced by highly detailed ads. Alternatively, consumers with infrequent experiences exhibit intrusions in anticipatory self-referencing due to imagination inflation prompted by these advertising (Dimofte and Yalch, 2010).
Another types of self-reference have change between cognitive and affective. Romeo and Debevec (1992) found that the early buying behavior emphasized the cognitive (representing characteristics of the ad) processing of information. As a result, marketing studies focused on the cognitive reactions to persuasive communications and the subsequent effects on beliefs and attitudes toward the ad, whereas, recent research give more attentions to affective responses (feelings, emotions) to persuasion. However, Roger (1981) said the enhanced memory of self-referenced information might be due to both the cognitive and affective components of the self (As cited in Romeo and Debevec, 1992).
2.2 The benefit of combination of self-reference and marketing
The usual explanation for the self-reference effect is that the knowledge structure of one's self is abundant and includes many favorable associations that can be related to...
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