Conflict Management

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Sources, Methodologies and Styles of Conflict Management
Mohammad Atashak Member of Young Researchers Club matashak@yahoo.com 09123123141 Parisa Mahzadeh Master degree in educational administration p_mahzadeh@yahoo.com 09122397950

Abstract:
Conflict management is an ongoing procedure. It entails continual communication and supervision. In this article, has been reviewed the evolution of conflict management and have been studied sources of conflict, styles of conflict management, conflict management methodologies and major features of the conflict management module and in the end has been presented conflict reduction strategies.

Key worlds: conflict management, sources of conflict, styles of conflict management, conflict management methodologies

Introduction:
The term conflict refers to perceived incompatibilities resulting typically from some form of interference or opposition. Conflict management, then, is the employment of strategies to correct these perceived differences in a positive manner. For many decades, managers had been taught to view conflict as a negative force. However, conflict may actually be either functional or dysfunctional. Whereas dysfunctional conflict is destructive and leads to decreased productivity, functional conflict may actually encourage greater work effort and help task performance. Borisoff and Victor point out, "We have come to recognize and to acknowledge the benefits dealing with conflict affords. Because of our differences, we communicate, we are challenged, and we are driven to find creative solutions to problems [1]."

The Evolution of Conflict Management:
The early approach to conflict management was based on the assumption that all conflict was bad and would always be counterproductive to organizational goals. Conflict management, therefore, was synonymous with conflict avoidance. This left the people experiencing the conflict with essentially only one outcome: a win-lose scenario. In such cases, the loser



References: 1. Borisoff, D., and D.A. Victor. Conflict Management: A Communication Skills Approach. 2nd ed. Boston: Allyn and Bacon, 1998. 2. Shelton, C.D., and J.R. Darling. "From Chaos to Order: Exploring New Frontiers in Conflict Management." Organization Development Journal 22, no. 3 (2004): 22–41. 3. Nurmi, R., and J. Darling. International Management Leadership. New York: International Business Press, 1997. 4. Daft, R.L. Organizational Theory and Design. St. Paul, MN: West, 1997. 5. Terry, P.M. "Conflict Management." Journal of Leadership Studies 3, no. 2 (1996): 321. 6. United States Department of Agriculture. Understanding conflict management and ADR. Retrieved electronically from http://www.usda.gov/cprc/understand.htm on October 5, 2003. 7. Thomas, K.W., and R.H. Kilmann. Thomas-Kilmann Conflict Mode Instrument. Sterling Forest, NY: Xicom, Inc., 1974. 8. Watershed Information Network at Purdue University. Managing Conflict. Retrieved electronically from http://www.ctic.purdue.edu/KYW/Brochures/ManageConflict.html on October 5, 2003. 9. http://www.usda.gov/cprc/understand.htm 10. Ohio Commission on Dispute Resolution and Conflict Management. Choosing a Conflict management Style. Retrieved electronically from 11. http://disputeresolution.ohio.gov/schools/contentpages/styles.htm on October 5, 2003. 12. National School Board Association. Toolkit for Educational Leadership. Retrieved electronically from http://www.nsba.org/sbot/toolkit/Conflict.html on October 5, 2003.

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