QUALITY MANAGEMENT & QUALITY GURUS
The concept of “quality” has evolved to mean far more than the integrity of a manufactured product. Quality now represents a philosophy, a system of methodologies and practices, and an ongoing commitment to business excellence that encompasses all issues and engages all individuals within an organization.
Total quality management (TQM) - is an approach to serving customers that involves totally reengineering processes and systems to improve products and services in the way customers expect while considering the needs of employees and relationships with suppliers.
Those who begin to learn about quality become familiar with the names of Philip B. Crosby, W. Edwards Deming, and Joseph M. Juran, Ishikawa, Feigenbaum, Shigeo Shingo etc - renowned quality experts who have been carrying forth the message of quality for many years.
History & Background
The use of inspection to assure conformity to specific requirements dates back to the middle Ages. For instance, Craft Guilds established standards to differentiate their goods and safeguard the reputation of their trade. Skilled craftsmen performed inspection and remedies were made right at the workbench. And through the early years of low-volume manufacturing, informal inspection of products and arbitrary review of worker output sufficed. However, as organizations and production yields became larger during the Industrial Revolution, the need for “quality control” through more effective operations became evident.
The TQM approach began as a means of repairing the damage Japan suffered post-World War II. In the 1920s, Dr. Walter Shewhart introduced quality control as a proactive function rooted in process, rather than relying strictly on reactive measures resulting from inspection. Applying statistical theory to the management of quality, he developed the first modern control chart and demonstrated that eliminating variation in the process leads to a good standard of end products. Shewhart’s statistical control techniques were adopted by the War Department for the manufacture of weapons during WWII, yet engineers in American private industry were slow to adopt his methods. As a regular consultant to the military, Shewhart was asked by Gen. MacArthur to help in the post-war rebuilding of Japanese industry. In his place, Shewhart recommended his Western Electric protégés W. Edwards Deming and Joseph Juran to spearhead the effort.
American gurus Deming and Juran took their messages of
Quality to Japan
Japanese developed new Concepts in response to
Western businesses follow Japanese industrial success
(e.g., Toyota) and new quality leaders emerge
Need & Importance
Leaders are focusing today on quality to restore the country's competitive edge. Emphasis on quality improves overall productivity and reduces costs. Managers are focusing on quality as a way for meeting customer needs These managers are beginning to understand the importance of continuously improving the quality of their services and products as a way of achieving these goals.
W Edwards Deming
Dr Deming is the one Quality Guru most people connected with industry has heard of. Born in 1900, Dr Deming died in 1993. He stressed the importance of management’s role, both at the individual and company level, in the delivery of quality. Deming stressed that the top management has higher responsibility for quality improvement that senior or middle level management. When he died in December 1993 at the age of ninety-three, he had taught quality and productivity improvement for more than fifty years. Definition
Deming does not define quality in a single phrase. He asserts that the quality of any product or service can only be defined by the customer. Quality is a relative term that will change in meaning depending on the customer’s needs. Deming’s teachings
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