L. PETERSON/AP BIOLOGY
Describe the role of the hypothalamus, the pituitary hormones, and the ovarian
hormones in the regulation of the human menstrual cycle. Include in your
discussion the concept of feedback control and the way in which fertilization of
the egg alters the menstrual cycle.
Hypothalamus and Feedback: Maximum 6 pts.
__low progesterone or estrogen resulting in positive feedback __secretion of a releasing factor
__secretion of pituitary FSH
__high level of progesterone or estrogen resulting in negative feedback __causing a decrease in LH releasing factor
__causing a decrease in LH
__the "pill" and its influence on feedback
__influence of stress on feedback
Pituitary Hormones: Maximum 6 pts.
__FSH secretion by the pituitary gland
__the effect of FSH on egg formation
__stimulation of estrogen secretion by FSH
__LH (or FSH & LH) resulting in ovulation
__corpus luteum formation by LH stimulation
__progesterone secretion by LH stimulation
__decreased LH causing corpus luteum breakdown
__formation of corpus albicans
Ovarian Hormones: Maximum 4 pts.
__estrogen secretion by follicles inhibiting menstrual flow
__estrogen secretion initiating endometrial growth
__progesterone from corpus luteum promoting further endometrial growth & vascularization __low level of progesterone and estrogen causing menstrual flow
Fertilization: Maximum 2 pts.
__effect of human or placental chorionic gonadotropin on the pituitary gland __no menstrual cycle
Bonus Point: Maximum 1 pt.
__mentioning the days or phases of the cycle
__a good descriptive diagram
__a high estrogen level resulting in stimulation of the hypothalamus to release more LHRF
Maximum of 12 if Fertilization and Feedback are not included in the discussion.
Maximum of 14 if either Fertilization or Feedback are discussed and not both.
ANIMAL REPRODUCTION QUESTION 1989:
L. PETERSON/AP BIOLOGY
Describe negative and positive feedback loops, and discuss how feedback
mechanisms regulate each of the following:
a. The menstrual cycle in a nonpregnant human female
Introduction: (describe -/+ feedback loops)
1. Definition as an overview of the process: Control mechanism
which is regulated through the effect it brings about. 1 + 1 pts
2. Negative feedback: Endproduct acts as an inhibitor of pathway
Seek terms such as inhibit/turn off. Examples: ACTH -> cortisol ->
Lac operon; thermostat metaphor; CO2 respiration, etc. 1 + 1 pts
3. Positive feedback: change in variable amplifies the pathway
Seek terms such as turn on/stimulate/induce. Examples:
Oxytocin/birth; LH surge; trypsinogen/trypsin; neural membrane
permeability; mating process; sound amplification metaphor; etc.
[one point for definition and one point for example]
Note: these points might be embedded in Parts A and B.
Total of 3 points maximum for introduction out of 5 points possible.
Part A: Menstrual Cycle
1. Primary function of the cycle as an overall concept: production of
gamete and preparation of the uterus. A broad interpretation OK. 1 + 1 + 1 pts
2. Hormones and interactions: look for information that suggests cause
and effect and a pathway. Items a-c are complete examples. To earn a
point, three targets, hormones, and sources must be given in a logical
Wrong information will void a string of three. The goal is to find
physiological relationships and not just terms.
a. GnRH (hypothalamus) -> FSH (pituitary) -> estrogen (ovary) ->
b. GnRH (hypothalamus) -> LH (pituitary) -> progesterone (corpus luteum)
c. estrogen -> LH surge -> ovulation
Research on the regulation of the...
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