Ancient Greece

Topics: Greece, Athena, Parthenon Pages: 5 (1687 words) Published: May 7, 2013
Ancient Greece
Greece today is very different from what it was centuries ago. The beliefs are the same and the Gods who once ruled still live among in myths and tales told from generation to generation. Ancient Greece made many influential contributions to western civilization such as in the areas of philosophy, art, architecture, math and science. All of the achievements that ancient Greece has made was done simultaneously while fighting two wars, the Peloponnesian war and the Persian war. Greek life was dominated by religion. So the temples of ancient Greece were the biggest and most beautiful, they also had a political purpose as they were often built to celebrate civic power and pride, or offer thanksgiving to the patron deity of a city for success in war. The Greeks developed three architectural systems, called orders, each with their own distinctive proportions and detailing. The Greek orders are: Doric, Ionic, and Corinthian. In the Doric order, Parthenon which is the temple of Athena Parthenos, Greek goddess of wisdom, on the Acropolis in Athens. The Parthenon was built in the 5th century BC, and despite the enormous damage it has sustained over the centuries, it still communicates the ideals of order and harmony for which Greek architecture is known. In the Ionic order Erechtheum the temple from the middle classical period of Greek art and architecture, built on the Acropolis of Athens between 421 and 405BC. . Acropolis in Greek means "The Sacred Rock, the high city". All around the world the Acropolis of Athens is known as 'The Acropolis'. The Erechtheum contained sanctuaries to Athena Polias, Poseidon, and Erechtheus. In the Corinthian Order most ornate of the classic orders of architecture. It was also the latest, not arriving at full development until the middle of the 4th cent. B.C. The oldest known is found in the temple of Apollo at Bassae. The temple of Zeus at Athens was perhaps the most notable of the Corinthian temples. The first true invasion in Hellas was not until the Trojan War; also the country didn’t have a name at the time neither until the son of Deucalion was born which then the country was named after him. The naming of the districts of Hellas was developed by the Pelasgians and their tribes, who traveled far and wide protecting what was theirs. The term Hellenes was created by their aid being invoked by other cities. Greece finally became smarter and decided to develop a military. The first branch of military created was the navy, which was founded by Minos. Minos started to take over and made his sons governors over Cyclades. Piracy was a big deal off the coast of Hellas, the barbarians and the Hellenes communicated to overturn the pirates. This occupation was considered to be honorable not disgraceful. The arms they wore among these continental tribes are a relic of their old predatory habits. Even in the comfort of their own homes the Hellenes had to stay armed to protect their selves and their loved ones. The Athenians were the first who laid aside arms and approached the easier and more luxurious way of life. The gods of Greece are alike many other types of gods, they were pictured a lot like human men and women. The Greeks didn't worship any animals the gods, like people were endowed with many weaknesses. The gods could be jealous, envious, spiteful, and petty. The gods were held to be immortal, but they had a beginning. The rites of many gods came from Egypt. There were two types of Olympic Gods: Celestial Deities and Earth Deities. The Celestial Deities dwelled on Mount Olympus while the Earth Deities resided on, or under, Earth. There were twelve Olympic Gods; however, because the tales of these gods started out orally, the gods and goddesses classified as Olympians are not totally clear. Because the Twelve Olympians are not totally clear, there are a possible fourteen gods and goddesses that could be classified as Olympians. The gods and goddesses all had their place in Ancient...

Bibliography: From: Thucydides, The History of the Peloponnesian War, Benjamin Jowett, trans., (New York: Duttons, 1884), pp. 11-23, Sections 1.2-17.
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