Anatomy of the Brain

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Anatomy and Physiology

The main components of the brain—the cerebrum, the cerebellum, diencephalon and the brainstem—have distinct functions.
The Cerebrum
Is the largest and most developmentally advanced part of the human brain. It is responsible for several higher functions, including higher intellectual function, speech, emotion, integration of sensory stimuli of all types, initiation of the final common pathways for movement, and fine control of movement.
The cerebrum is divided into a right and a left hemisphere and is composed of pairs of frontal, parietal, temporal, and occipital lobes.
The left hemisphere controls the majority of functions on the right side of the body, while the right hemisphere controls most of functions on the left side of the body The crossing of nerve fibers takes place in the brain stem. Thus, injury to the left cerebral hemisphere produces sensory and motor deficits on the right side, and vice versa.

The Cerebellum The second largest area, is responsible for maintaining balance and further control of movement and coordination.
The Diencephalon The diencephalon or interbrain sits atop the brain stem and is enclosed by cerebral hemispheres. The major structure of the diencephalon are the thalamus, hypothalamus and epithalamus. The thalamus, which encloses the shallow third ventricle of the brain, is a relay station for sensory impulses passing upward to the sensory cortex. As impulses surge through the thalamus, we have a crude recognition of whether the sensation we are about to have is pleasant or unpleasant. The hypothalamus makes up the floor of the diencephalon, it plays a role in the regulation of body temperature, water balance and metabolism. It is also center for many drives and emotions and such it is an important part of the so-called limbic system or emotional viscera brain.
The epithalamus forms the roof of the third ventricle. Important part of the epithalamus are the pineal body and the choroid plexus of the

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