The Brain / Psy 240 / Week Two
The human brain is one of the most complex and fascinating parts of the body. The major regions of the brain are separated into three layers called the central core, the limbic system, and the cerebral hemispheres or otherwise called the forebrain, midbrain, and hindbrain. The forebrain houses the cerebrum, thalamus, and hypothalamus. The midbrain houses tectum and tegmentum. The hindbrain houses the cerebellum, pons, and medulla. From here the brain is divided into five major divisions. They are called the telencephalon (forebrain), the diencephalon (forebrain), the mesencephalon (midbrain), the metencephalon (hindbrain), and the myelencephalon (hindbrain). Starting with the myelencephalon which is also called the medulla, resides in the hindbrain. This is responsible for carrying signals between the other parts of the brain and the body. The medulla is also responsible for reticular formation, which is comprised of tiny nuclei in the central core of the brain stem. Reticular formation plays a role in somatic motor control, cardiovascular control, pain modulation, sleep, consciousness, and habituation. Due to the complexity of the myelencephalon an injury to this part of the brain would be life threatening or devastating. The metencephalon is also located in the hindbrain. This plays a role in reticular formation. The metencephalon is composed of the pons and cerebellum, contains part of the fourth ventricle, the trigeminal nerve, abducens nerve, facial nerves, and a portion of the vestibulocochlear nerve. The pons combine with the cerebellum and create two divisions in the metencephalon. The cerebellum is responsible for motor function and if damaged, can impair normal motor functioning. The metencephalon also plays a role in movement of the tongue and lips for language production. Located inside the midbrain is the mesencephalon. This is divided into two sections. The tectum contains...
References: Morris, C. G., & Maisto, A. A. (2005). Psychology: An Introduction (12th ed.). : Prentice Hall
Pinel, J. P.J. (2009). Biopsychology (7th ed.). : Allyn & Bacon
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