Anatomy and Physiology

Topics: Cell, Muscle, Organelle, Connective tissue, DNA, Organism / Pages: 3 (550 words) / Published: Sep 2nd, 2013
Chapter 1 - The Human Body

Anatomy is the science relating to the structural organisation of living organisms.

Physiology is the science relating to the operational functions of living organisms.

The many parts and systems of the body are integrated and function co-operatively to provide a healthy living body via 6 hierarchy levels of structural organisation.
The basic or first level is the Chemical Level, where atoms are combined to form molecules.
The second level is the Cellular Level, where cells are made up of molecules.
The third level is the Tissue Level, where tissues consist of simular cell types.
The fourth level is the Organ Level, where organs are made up of different tissue types.
The fifth level is the System Level, where systems consist of different organs that work together.
The last and sixth level is the Organismal Level, where the human organism is made up of many organ systems.

Homeostasis is a characteristic of all living systems; the maintenance of a balanced and stable (equilibrium) internal environment.

There are many organelles that make up a cell, the three main regions of a living cell are: Nucleus – is a central body of dense matter containing Genetic Material (DNA) in most cells, also known as the control centre of the cell.
Cytoplasm – is the semi fluid substance inside the cell, containing the Nucleus and other organelles within the cell.
Plasma membrane – is the outer lining that encloses a cell.

Some other prime importance to our existence in the way of nature of cells and their characteristics include:
Permeability – is a property of membrane that allows the transportation of molecules and ions to pass through the membrane.
Mitochondria – is seen as a capsule shape organelle inside a cell, this is known as the ‘Power Houses’ of the cell. It generates most of the cells energy in the form of ATP (Adenosine Triphosphate)

Tissue Types - Groups of specialised cells work together to form different types

References: Books: Marieb, Elaine N. Essentials of Human Anatomy & Physiology, Ninth Edition 2009 Web sites: Wikipedia the Free Encyclopedia, Wikimedia Foundation, Inc, viewed 25th January 2013

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