Principles of safeguarding and protection in health and social care 1.1
Physical abuse is non accidental harm caused to a body. Examples include punching, kicking, slapping and pinching. Sexual abuse is the involvement of a vulnerable adult in sexual activities or relationship. Examples include inappropriate touching, kissing and indecent exposure. Emotional/Psychological abuse is behaviour that is harmful to emotional health and mental wellbeing. Examples includes threats of harm, humiliation and intimidation. Financial abuse is the use of a vulnerable adults property, assets or income without their consent. Examples include theft, fraud and exploitation. Institutional abuse is the collective failure of an organisation to providean appropriate service to vulnerable people. Examples include poor practice being accepted by staff, unsuitable buildings and equipment. Self-neglect – Defined in the dictionary as “ The relative lack of self-care, especially common in the elderly, who live alone and cannot provide for themselves and/or maintain physical and/or mental health”, Self neglect is a very complex issue and can be researched at great lengths. “The literature identifies the wide range of perspectives that inform professionals’ understanding of self-neglect. There is, however, no conclusive evidence on causation, or on the effectiveness of particular interventions. There are tensions between respect for autonomy and a perceived duty to preserve health and wellbeing. The former principle may extend as far as recognising that an individual who chooses to die through self-neglect should not be prevented from doing so; the latter may engage the view that action should be taken, even if resisted, to preserve an individual’s safety and dignity. Human rights arguments are engaged in support of either perspective.” - Self-neglect and adult safeguarding: findings from research First published in Great Britain in September 2011 by the Social Care Institute for Excellence. Neglect by others is behaviour that results in vulnerable adults’ basic needs not being met. Examples include ignoring mental or physical needs, poor physical condition and failure to provide access to inappropriate health care. 1.2
Type of Abuse
Signs and symptoms
Bruising, flinching, abrasions, burns, change in appetite, change in sleep pattern, changes in behaviour Sexual
Expressing sexualised behaviour, soreness, bleeding, cystitis, thrush, sexually transmitted infection, bruising, change in appetite, change in sleep pattern, changes in behaviour Financial
Unexplained inability to pay bills, transferring money or assets, unexplained withdrawals, unusual interest of family, change in appetite, change in sleep pattern, changes in behaviour Emotional/Psychological
Inconsistency of information, seeking attention or protection, withdrawn, agitated, anxious, isolation, change in appetite, change in sleep pattern, changes in behaviour Institutional
Poor staff morale, high turnover, high sickness rates, excessive hours worked, frequent use of agency staff, lack of consideration for privacy, no telephone that can be used privately, lack of staff training. Signs and symptoms can include service users saying ‘they wont let me’ or ‘they don’t care’ ; poor personal care standards, hungry or dehydrated service users. Self neglect
Not wishing to have their needs met.
Neglect by others
Ignoring medical needs, ignoring physical needs, poor physical condition,poor appearance, pressure ulcers, soiled or wet clothing. 1.3
Factors that can make an individual more vulnerable to abuse may include if the individual has a mental disabilty such as dementia or not having the mental capacity. If the individual is secluded or isolated or vulnerable. There could be factors for the abuser which could include the abuser having lack of training, also abusing their power. Sometimespersonal issues have a part to play which could include the carer/abuser being stressed...
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