Steps Involved In Research Process
1. Formulating the research problem: There are two types of research problems, viz., those which relate to states of nature and those which-relate to relationships between variables. At the very outset the researcher must single out the problem he wants to study, i.e., he must decide the general area of interest or aspect of a subject-matter that he would like to inquire into.
2. Extensive literature survey: Once the problem in formulated, a brief summary of it should be written down. It is compulsory for a research worker writing a thesis for a Ph.D degree to write a synopsis of the topic and submit it to the necessary Committee or the Research Board for approval. At this juncture the researcher should undertake extensive literature survey connected with the problem. For this purpose, the abstracting and indexing journals and published or unpublished bibliographies are the first place to go to. Academic journals, conference proceedings, government reports, books etc., must be tapped depending on the nature of the problem.
3. Development of working hypotheses: After extensive literature survey, researcher should state in clear terms the working hypothesis or hypotheses. Working hypothesis is tentative assumption made in order to draw out and test its logical or empirical consequences. As such the manner in which research hypotheses are developed is particularly important since they provide the focal point for research. They also affect the manner in which tests must be conducted in the analysis of data and indirectly the quality of data which is required for the analysis." In most types of research, the development of working hypothesis plays an important role. Hypothesis should be very specific arid limited to the piece of research in hand because it has to be tested.
4. Preparing the research design: The research problem having been formulated in clear cut terms, the researcher will be required to prepare a research design, i.e., he will have to state the conceptual structure within which research would be conducted. The preparation of such a design facilitates research to be as efficient as possible yielding maximum information, in other words, the function of research design is to provide for collection of relevant evidence with minimal expenditure of effort, time and money.
The preparation of the research design, appropriate for a particular research problem, involves usually the consideration of the following: 1) the means of obtaining the information;
2) the availability and skills of the researcher and his staff 3) explanation of the way in which selected means of obtaining information will be organized and the reasoning leading to the selection;
4) the time available-for research; and
5) the cost factor relating to research, the finance available for the purpose
Review of concept
Interpret & Report
5. Determining sample design: All the items under consideration any field of
inquiry constitute a ‘universe’ or ‘population’. We select only a few items from the universe for study purposes. The items so selected constitute what is technically called a sample. The researcher must decide the way of selecting a sample or what is popularly known as the sample design. In other words, a sample design a definite plan determined before any data are actually collected for obtaining a sample from a given population.
6. Collecting the data: There are several ways of collecting appropriate data which differ considerably in context of money costs, time and other resources at the disposal of the researcher.
Primary data can be collected either through experiment or through survey. If the researcher conducts an experiment, he observes some quantitative...
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