Lecture 7: Making sense of politics
§ Institutionalism as middle ground
§ Two dimensions:
1. Institutional design: different forms
2. Institutional strength:
a. Durability: how long it lasted
b. Enforcement: how effective?
§ Rich countries more likely to have democracy è structuralism: economic condition § Islamic Culture is reason for persistence of authoritarianism in the Middle East (before 2011) è structuralim: cultural condition § Democrats won election due to Obama è voluntarism
§ Financial crisis caused by greedy wall street ibankers è voluntarism § Presidential constitutions are not particularly conducive to political stability in South America è Institutionalism à institutional design § Universal suffrage is key to Hong Kong’s continued prosperity in 21st Century è institutionalisms à institutional design Dimension of institutionalist theory (hypothetical)
§ Jasmine flower revolution succeeded in Tunisia because of weak law enforcement à strength § Parliamentary system can coordinate representation of diverse social interests in democracy à design § Strong civil society is necessary condition for democracy to work (argument controversial, e.g. Germany had strong civil society beofre WWII) èstrength§ Executive-lead government leads to low accountability è design Political part descriptive features
1. Autonomous political organisation à it has the highest level of political autonomy à whether it can make decision out of own free will è cases of party capture, but not government capture (gov has low autonomy in UK, but Tory party has high autonomy) 2. Voluntary membership: so long as there is coerced membership (e.g. some armies), it is not voluntary, not out of free will 3. Common ideology or platform: may have diverse views on same issue àbut subtle differences under same ideology 4. Purpose: control of governmental power/political power èuse 4 descriptive features to...
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