Who wants to play `follow the leader?' A theory of charismatic relationships based on routinized... By: Weierter, Stuart J.M., Leadership Quarterly, 10489843, Summer97, Vol. 8, Issue 2 Database:
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WHO WANTS TO PLAY `FOLLOW THE LEADER?' A THEORY OF CHARISMATIC RELATIONSHIPS BASED ON ROUTINIZED CHARISMA AND FOLLOWER CHARACTERISTICS Contents
1. ROUTINIZED CHARISMATIC MESSAGE
2. CHARISMATIC RELATIONSHIPS
3. LEADER'S CHARISMATIC MESSAGE
4. ROLE OF PERSONAL CHARISMA
5. CHARACTERISTICS OF THE FOLLOWER
7. Clarity of the Self-Concept
8. MAINTENANCE OF THE RELATIONSHIP
9. CONTEXTUAL FACTORS THAT IMPACT THE CHARISMATIC RELATIONSHIP 10. ROUTINIZATION OF THE CHARISMATIC RELATIONSHIP
11. ORGANIZATIONAL IMPLICATIONS
12. RESEARCH IMPLICATIONS AND CONCLUSION
This paper outlines a theory of charismatic relationships based on the individual orientation of the follower and extent of charismatic message routinization. A model is proposed that addresses three different types of charismatic relationships--socialized, personalized, and social contagion--and describes the role of follower's self-monitoring, self-concept clarity, self-esteem, and self-efficacy. Seven propositions based on these perspectives are presented, and the paper concludes with an outline of the model in an organizational context and possible research strategies to test the validity of the theory. Editor's Note: This article is the 1996 Kenneth E. Clark Research Award Winner sponsored by the Center for Creative Leadership and also successfully completed the normal Leadership Quarterly editorial review process. Congratulations to the author. There is essentially nothing to leadership but to carefully observe people's conditions and know them all, in both upper and lower echelons. When people's inner conditions are thoroughly understood, then inside and outside are in harmony. If the leader cannot minutely discern people's psychological conditions, and the feeling of those below is not communicated above, then above and below oppose each other and matters are disordered. This is how leadership goes to ruin. (Master Caotang Qing, quoted in Cleary, 1993, p. 155). The diversity of situations and research orientations associated with the study of charismatic leaders is broad and far reaching. Sociologists, political scientists, psychoanalysts, and psychologists--across a broad spectrum of social and cultural conditions, from socially deviant cults to large political organizations--have searched for those traits and characteristics that define the charismatic leader (Bass, 1990). The single recurring outcome is inconsistent and disappointing results (see Ellis, 1991). On this basis, many researchers have put forward the notion that no charismatic temperament or personality exists and that the concept of charisma results from a social relationship between leaders and followers (e.g., Bass, 1985; Klein & House, 1995; Shamir, House, & Arthur, 1993). Shamir (1991), in a review of the theory that addresses the charismatic relationship, highlighted the different and often conflicting outcomes proposed by these theorists. In particular, Shamir (1991) proposed that more research is needed to examine: " the nature of followers' psychological attachment to the leader--personal identification, social identification, or value internalization,  the limits of followers' acceptance of the leader and their willingness to obey the leader, and  follower's specific attributions to the leader" (p. 101). Similarly, Klein and House (1995) point to an absence in the literature on the empirical examination of followers and draw attention to the contentious issue of whether followers enter the charismatic relationship for direction or expression. The present paper addresses these issues by examining the processes that underlie the charismatic relationship with respect to follower...
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