Post Magallanic Expeditions:
1. Loaisa (1525) – 7 ships and 450 men
Results: Failure – did not reach the Philippines death of Loaisa and co-captain Elcano in mid-ocean. 2. Cabot (1526) – 4 ships and 250 men
Results: Failure – did not find the Strait of Mgellan
3. Saavedra (1527) – 3 ships and 110 men
Results: Failure – reached Mindanao but failed to colonize, they just rescued the survivors of Loaisa’s expedition at Tidore, Moluccas 4. Villalobos (1542) – 6 ships 200 men
Results: Reached Mindanao but failed to colonize. He named Mindanao Ceasaria Caroli in honor of King Charles of Spain and he named the country Philippines in honor of King Phillip II of Spain. He died in Moluccas, comforted by St. Francis of Assissi – Apostles of the Indies 5. Legaspi (1564) – 4 ships 380 men Result: Successful colonization He reached Cebu in 1565 but was not able to land due to hostility of the natives, went to Limasawa and was received by the king, Bankaw, then to Bohol and made a blood compact with Rajah Sikatuna
The Conquest of the Swords and the Cross:
Spanish aims In coming to the Philippines:
1. to spread Christianity (God)
2. to seek economic wealth (gold)
3. to establish a global empire (glory/grandeur)
First group of religious missionaries
2. Franciscans 3. Dominicans 4. Recollects 5. Jesuits
April 27, 1565 – Legaspi conquered Cebu after a successful battle against Rajah Tupas. He founded the first Spanish settlement in the city and named it ‘The City of the Most Holy Name of Jesus.” The natives of Cebu were converted into Christianity.
1569 – Legaspi moved to Panay due to shortage of food in Cebu. In the same year, he conquered Masbate, Ticao, Burias and Bicol province
1570 – Legaspi sent his grandson Juan de Salcedo to conquer Mindoro. In the same year Martin de Goiti led and expedition to Manila and engaged Rajah Sulayman into a battle. Sulayman’s kingdom was engulfed in flames
1571- The second conquest of Manila by Legaspi. He was welcomed by Rajah Lakandula of Tondo. But, of Bambalito, a chieftain of Pampanga, defied the forces of Goiti in the Battle of Bankusay (the first battle of Manila Bay On June 24, 1571Legaspi founded the city of Manila and named it the “Distinguished and Ever Loyal City”. He became the first governor and Adelantado of the Phil. He died of a heart attack in Manila on August 20, 1572.
Spanish Colonial Policy: The divide and rule policy
The Philippines was a crown colony, she belonged to the Spanish crown. From 1565 to 1821, the Philippines was ruled by Spain through Mexico, but after the independence of Mexico in 1821, the Philippines was directly ruled by Spain.
The Council of the Indies – the body which handled all matters pertaining to Spanish colonies and was under the supervision of the Ministry de Ultramar. Leyes de Indies – set of laws used to govern the Philippines.
A. Political Changes Under Spain
Governor General – the chief executive, also known as the Captain General Powers of the governor general:
1. He is the vice-royal patron- the king’s representative in the colony 2. He executes laws from Spain 3. he administers the country 4. He serves the presiding judge of the Royal Audiencia
5. He is the commander in chief of the army
6. He appoints ambassadors and envoy to other countries
7. He has control over churches and clergy
8. He has special power – Cumplase – the power to suspend the implementation of the laws from Spain.
Checks to the powers of the Governor General:
1. The Residencia – a special court which audits the performance of the out-going governor general. 2. The Visitador – the spy of the Spanish king in the colony 3. The archbishop and the clergy who complaint directly to the king. 4. The friars and the members of the clergy.
Spanish Cortes – the legislative body during colonial rule Royal Audiencia – the Supreme Court during...
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