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Trial and Execution

By emmanuelreyes Feb 17, 2012 1440 Words
Trial and Execution
Last Trip Abroad
• July 31, 1896—Rizal’s four-year exile in Dapitan came to an end. • On board the steamer Espana, he left Dapitan amidst tears of Dapitan folks who bid him goodbye. • August 6—he arrived in Manila but missed the ship Isla de Luzon for Spain because it departed the previous day. Last Trip Abroad

• Writing to Blumentritt, Rizal mentioned this episode: “Unfortunately, I did not catch the mail ship for Spain, and fearing that my stay in Manila for a month might bring me troubles, I made known to the Governor General, while remaining on board the ship, of my wish to be isolated from everybody, except my family.” • Rizal was transferred to the Spanish cruiser Castilla as a guest detained on board “in order to avoid difficulties from friends and enemies.” Last Trip Abroad

• While waiting for the next steamer to take him to Spain, the revolution broke out on August 19, 1896 with the discovery of the Katipunan. • August 30, 1896—Gov. Gen. Ramon Blanco proclaimed a state of war. • Rizal learned of the eruption of the revolution and was worried for two reasons: (1) the revolution was premature and might cause terrible loss of human lives; (2) Spain might take revenge against all Filipino patriots. Last Trip Abroad

• September 3—Rizal left for Spain on board Isla de Panay to serve as volunteer physician-surgeon of the Spanish army in Cuba. • September 7—Rizal arrived in Singapore where he was advised by a Filipino residents to stay behind and take advantage of the protection of the British law but Rizal did not heed their advice because he had given his word of honor to Blanco. Last Trip Abroad

• Unaware of Spanish duplicity, Rizal trusted Blanco who was secretly conspiring for his destruction. He regarded Rizal as a “dangerous Filipino” who was responsible for the raging revolution. • Blanco and the Ministers of War and the Colonies were exchanging coded messages for his arrest in Barcelona. Last Trip Abroad

• September 28—a passenger told Rizal the bad news that he would be arrested by order of Blanco and he realized that he was duped by the Spanish officials. • In his letter to Blumentritt:
“I cannot believe it… I have offered to serve as a physician, risking life in the hazards of war and abandoning all my business. I am innocent and now in reward, they are sending me to prison!” Last Trip Abroad

• September 30—he was officially notified by the ship captain that he should stay in his cabin until further orders from Manila. • October 3—the ship arrived in Barcelona with Rizal a prisoner on board. His jailor was Military Commander Eulogio Despujol (the same one who ordered his banishment in Dapitan). • Despujol told Rizal that he would be shipped back to Manila on board the transport ship Colon. Last Homecoming and Trial

• October 8—Rizal weas informed that newspapers in Madrid were full of stories about the revolution in the Philippines and he was blamed for it. • For Rizal it was his chance to return in order to confront his slanders and to vindicate his name. Last Homecoming and Trial

• He wrote in his diary:
“I believe that what God is doing me is a blessing, allowing me to go back to the Philippines in order to destroy such an accusation. Because either they do me justice and recognize my innocence… or they sentence me to death, and thereby before the eyes of society, I atone for my supposed crime. Society will forgive me and later, without any doubt, justice will be done and I will be one more martyr… Let God’s will be done; I am ready to obey it. Either I will be condemned or absolved. I’m happy and ready.” Last Homecoming and Trial

• October 11—Rizal’s diary was taken away from him and scrutinized by the authorities. It was only returned on November 2. • Hence, there was no entry in his diary from October 12 to November 1. Last Homecoming and Trial

• News of Rizal’s arrest alarmed his friends in Europe. • Dr. Antonio Ma. Regidor and Sixto Lopez tried to rescue Rizal when his ship reached Singapore by means of a writ of habeas corpus, saying that Rizal was “illegally detained” on the Spanish steamer. • Unfortunately, Chief Justice Loinel Coix denied the writ on the ground that the Colon was carrying Spanish troops to the Philippines and hence it is a warship of a foreign power, which under international law was beyond the jurisdiction of the Singapore authorities. Last Homecoming and Trial

• November 3—the Colon reached Manila and Rizal was transferred under heavy guard to Fort Santiago. • Spanish authorities fished for evidence against Rizal by torturing many Filipino patriots, including his brother Paciano. • November 20—the 5-day preliminary investigation began, but Rizal was not permitted to confront those who testified against him. • Two kinds of evidence were presented: documentary and testimonial. Last Homecoming and Trial

• The only right given to Rizal by the Spanish authorities was to choose his defense counsel from a list submitted to him. • Rizal had chosen Don Luis Taviel de Andrade, brother of Jose Taviel (Rizal’s bodyguard in Calamba in 1887) Last Homecoming and Trial

• December 11—the information of charges was formally read to Rizal in his prison cell. • Rizal was accused of being “the principal organizer and the living soul of the Filipino insurrection, the founder of societies, periodicals and books dedicated to fomenting and propagating ideas of rebellion.” • Rizal pleaded not guilty to the crime of rebellion.

Last Homecoming and Trial
• December 13—Camilo de Polavieja replaced Blanco and this development sealed Rizal’s fate. • December 15—Rizal wrote a manifesto to the Filipino people appealing to them to stop the shedding of blood and to achieve their liberties through education and Liberty.

The Trial
• The trial of Rizal was an eloquent proof of Spanish injustice and misrule. It was patently a mistrial. 1. Rizal, a civilian, was tried by a military court. 2. His case was prejudged—he was considered guilty before the actual trial. 3. The military court accepted all charges and testimonies against him, and ignored all arguments and proofs in his favor. 4. Rizal was not given the right to face the witnesses against him in open court. The Trial

• December 26—Rizal’s trial started in a military building called Cuartel de Espana. That same day, the military court unanimously voted for the sentence of death. • December 28—Polavieja approved the court decision and ordered Rizal to be shot at 7:00 in the morning on December 30, 1896. Last Hours of Rizal

• 6:00AM, Dec. 29—Captain Rafael Dominguez read the death sentence to Rizal. • 7:00AM—he was moved to the prison chapel where he was visited by his Jesuit teachers • 8:00AM—Rizal had breakfast; he thanked de Andrade for his gallant services • 9:00AM—Father Federico Faura arrived whom Rizal was reminded of the warning by the priest that he would lose his head for writing the Noli. • 10:00AM—Rizal’s teacher in Ateneo and a Jesuit missionary he befriended in Dapitan arrived; a Spanish journalist interviewed him. • 12:00NN-3:30PM—Rizal was left alone in his cell; he had probably written his farewell poem and a letter to Blumentritt. • 3:30PM—Father Balaguer returned and discussed with him Rizal’s retraction. • 4:00PM—Rizal’s mother arrived; Rizal gave to Trinidad the alcohol lamp. • 6:00PM—another visitor, fiscal of the Royal Audiencia arrived and left with a good impression of Rizal’s intelligence and noble character. • 10:00PM—the draft of the retraction was submitted to Rizal; he wrote his retraction. • 3:00AM, Dec. 30—Rizal heard Mass, confess his sins and took Holy Communion. • 5:30AM—he took his last breakfast and wrote two letters—one to his family and the other to Paciano; Josephine Bracken arrived. Martyrdom at Bagumbayan

• 6:30AM—a trumpet sounded at Fort Santiago to signal the start of death march to Bagumbayan. • Rizal was accompanied by his defense counsel and two Jesuit priests. • Rizal was fired at and at exactly 7:03AM he died—35 years old, five months and 11 days. • It was interesting to note that 14 years before his execution, Rizal predicted that he would die on December 30. Martyrdom at Bagumbayan

• The Spanish bullets may have killed Rizal, but the libertarian ideas spawned by his destroyed the Spanish rule in the Philippines. • Cecilio Apostol had written:
if a bullet destroyed your cranium,
Likewise, your idea destroyed an empire.

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