Calvinism: Who or what: A Protestant religious movement (inspired by Martin Luther’s Protestant Reformation), Calvinists followed John Calvin and his text Institutes of the Christian Religion that taught of an all powerful God and of sinful, weak and wicked humans. Where: Calvin started his teachings in Geneva, Switzerland yet his ideals spread across Western Europe and ultimately into America. When: 1530’s and beyond
Historical Importance: Much of Calvin’s ideals formed the foundations of Puritan society in the New England colonies of the early to mid 17th century (1600’s).
Predestination: Who or What: Is the doctrine that all events have been willed by god, Calvin stated predestination to mean that god willed eternal damnation and salvation for people Where: Calvin started his teachings in Geneva, Calvin was influenced by the Augustinian tradition, which led him to expound the doctrine of predestination. When: 1530’s and beyond
Historical Importance: That people were dependent on church officials to interpret both the Bible and God's actions, to find out if they were going to get in to heaven.
Puritans: Who or what: People who believed in the doctrine of a “calling” to do god’s work on earth. Puritan named Roger Williams introduced separation of church and state Where: Restricted from England so they were transported by emigration to Netherlands When: 1600’s and beyond
Historical Importance: The Puritans were the first people in America to introduce an early form of democracy.
Separatists: Who or what: The Separatist were dedicated extremists, Separatists were a group who advocated complete separation from the Church of England, but had no particular Church title. However, John Robinson and William Brewster, the Pilgrim leaders, were separatists. Where: England
When: 1600’s and beyond
Historical Importance: The Separatists founded the Plymouth Colony and the first form of government with the Mayflower Compact.
Mayflower Compact: Who or what: The Mayflower Compact was the first governing document of Plymouth Colony written by Separatists Where: signed on 11 November 1620 onboard the Mayflower
When: November 11,1620
Historical Importance: It was the first democratic document to be drafted in the New World, and became a model for later documents, such as the Constitution. Massachusetts Bay Colony: Who or what: The Massachusetts Bay Colony was an English settlement on the east coast of North America. The colony was founded by the owners of the Massachusetts Bay Company. Where: Coast of North America
When: 1620’s and beyond
Historical Importance: The colony had the first use of a "social contract" with the Mayflower Compact; which was later incorporated into American government
Great Migration: Who or what: By 1643 more than 20,000 Puritans arrived in Massachusetts, in what is called the Great Migration. Puritans also settled in Rhode Island, Connecticut, and Virginia during the colonial period. Where: Massachusetts
Historical Importance: Massachusetts Bay Colony settlers were able to attain a comfortable living for themselves and assure some measure of economic success for their children.
John Winthrop: Who or what: Wealthy puritan one of the founders of the Massachusetts Bay Colony, led one of the firsts groups of migrants from England in 1630 Where: Born in Suffolk, England
When: Between 1629 and his death in 1649, he served 12 annual terms as governor Historical Importance: He led a group of migrants to the Massachusetts Bay Colony
Anne Hutchinson: Who or what: Held unorthodox views that challenged the authority of the clergy and the very integrity of the Puritan experiment in Massachusetts Bay Colony. Where: Lived in Massachusetts Bay Colony untill she was banned and moved to New York where she was killed When: 1638
Historical Importance: Hutchinson is known chiefly for her role in the antinomian controversy in Massachusetts...
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