• leaving
    yields the reader insights into the mind and heart of the poet himself. There is also a fourth procedure the objective orientation, which on principle regards the work of art in isolation from all these external points of reference. The objective orientation was just beginning to emerge in the...
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  • New Criticism
    Critics (not necessarily by themselves)-- I. A. Richards, William Empson, F. R. Leavis, Kenneth Burke, John Crowe Ransom, Allen Tate, Yvor Winters, Cleanth Brooks, R. P. Blackmur, W. K. Wimsatt, Jr., René Wellek--are sometimes so great as to leave little ground for agreement. The New Critics tended to be...
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  • Historical Criticism
    Part B: Quote 1 In his essay entitled, “Irony as a Principle of Structure” author Cleanth Brooks utilizes several of the elements found in formal criticism to decipher a number of poetic interpretations. Among such elements are the poems use of irony and a term he likes to refer to as “radical metaphoricity”...
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  • The Waste Land: an Overview
    One of the most important early commentaries was written by I.A. Richards. In 1955 he included a discussion of The Waste Land in a book entitled Principles of Literary Criticism. In it he raised each of the four key issues and in each case found a positive value in Eliot’s method. He defended the use...
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  • Mutilating Self Into Spirit: Sylvia Plath's Poems.
    * “Irony as a principle of Structure” an Essay by Brooks. Cleanth Brooks article makes a lot of claims about the importance of metaphors and irony in literature. He has highlighted the use and importance of irony in a very impressive and literary way. His article "Irony as a Principle of Structure"...
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  • Pointless Violence Under a Veil of Tradition in “the Lottery”: a Discovery Via the Tools of Irony and Symbolism Within the Framework of Formalism
    Pointless Violence Under a Veil of Tradition in “The Lottery”: A Discovery Via the Tools of Irony and Symbolism Within the Framework of Formalism The approach to literary criticism known as Formalism focuses on the literary text itself as the source for meaning, and deems the text as the only context...
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  • Apostrophe to Helen
    old man’s forbearance. At this point Mephostophiles brings Helen for the second time, more true to the Pathetic Faustus’ vision. In this context Cleanth Brooks’ (Sunday Times, 20 February 1966) comment deserves mention, “…it is a sound psychology that Faustus demand at this point greater distractions...
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  • reader respone theory
    ‘New criticism’ of the postwar period. The position of new criticism is associated with such US critics as Cleanth Brooks, W. K. Wimsatt and Monroe Beardsley, and indebted also to the principles of ‘practical criticism’ associated with the British critics I.A Richards and F.R Leavis, new criticism involved...
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  • Formalism
    These truths are considered by New Critics to be static, enduring, and applicable to all humanity. Leading new critics include I.A. Richards, Cleanth Brooks, Northrop Frye, John Crowe Ransom, T.S. Eliot, and Roman Jacobsen. These thinkers consider literature to be a "language game" in which communication...
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  • Reflection
    have no actual connection to one another. However, T.S. Eliot writes these women’s stories underneath the same title. Critics, Edmund Wilson and Cleanth Brooks, discovered that, “every part of it is connected with the other, not in a conventional way, but by means of a complicated system of echoes, contrasts...
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  • What Seem to Be the Objective Features of New Criticism with a Particular Focus on Three Poems by Afred Lord Tennyson
    Charge of the Light Brigade' both of which have a definite historical context and include authorial intention. It is my aim however, to apply the principle features of a New Critical reading to both of these poems assessing each in turn to discover whether or not New Criticism may be applied effectively...
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  • Modern Views on John Donne’s Love-Poetry with special Reference to “The Canonization”
    reception-history 2. The prelude to modern reception: 1872 - 1912 3. T.S. Eliot and the revival of Donne and the Metaphysicals 4. Cleanth Brooks – a representative of the New Critics 5. The counter-movement: Reading Donne with background-knowledge 6. Ben Saunders’ Freudian Approach...
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  • Sociological Approach
    Sociological criticism is generally concerned with the effect of society upon art. Before the nineteenth century ended, Marx and Engels founded the principles of a special branch of sociological criticism – the Marxist approach. Marxist interpretation of society and literature is based on the philosophy...
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  • Syllabus
    Pointlessness (4) Figurative Languages: Similes; Metaphor; Personification; Allusion; Irony; Overstatement and Understatement; Puns; Zeugma; Imagery etc. Reference Kane, Thomas S. The New Oxford Guide to Writing OUP - 1988 Brooks, Cleanth and Warren R. Modern Rhetoric New York: Harcourt, 1958 Bradford, William –...
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  • Critical Analysis of "The Lottery"
    Tessie Huchinson in "The Lottery" (Lethem 3). This story in particular best depicts Jackson's view on people. A reader can see that she views life as irony and notices the evils and darkness that lurks within every individual (Hilton 250). "To put it most simply, Shirley Jackson worte about the mundane...
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  • Formalist Literary Theory
    spearheaded by two main bodies – Russian Formalists and New Critics – which focused on understanding the literary text through the text itself. Its principles posed a great shift from the traditional approaches during its time, and so it sparked a movement in the field of literary studies that would adopt...
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  • literary teory
    take everything as gospel truth; We should question What is literary theory? Theory is a coherent set of conceptual hypothetical and pragmatic principles forming the general frame of reference for a discipline. Literary Theory: the systematic account of the nature of literature and of the methods...
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  • Formalism
    These truths are considered by New Critics to be static, enduring, and applicable to all humanity. Leading new critics include I.A. Richards, Cleanth Brooks, Northrop Frye, John Crowe Ransom, T.S. Eliot, and Roman Jacobsen. These thinkers consider literature to be a language game in which communication...
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  • Alfred Housman
    the inevitability of death. He views time and aging as horrible processes and has the attitude that each day one lives is a day closer to death Cleanth Brooks stated, “Time is, with Housman, always the enemy.” The joy and beauty of life is darkened by the shadow of fast approaching death (Discovering...
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  • Ma English Syllabus
    English Phonetics and Phonology (CUP) 21. Krishnaswamy, Verma and Nagarajan (1992), Modern Applied Linguistics (Macmillan) 22. Leech, G. N. (1983), Principles of Pragmatics, London: Longman. 23. Levinson, S. C. (1983), Pragmatics, Cambridge: CUP. 24. Lyons, J. (1977), Semantics, Vols. 1 & 2, Cambridge:...
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