A Case of SpinalCord Injury
1. Functionalanatomy of the spinalcord includes white and grey mater, tracts, roots and spinalnerves.
Whitematter: consists of mylenated nerve fibers and they function to regulate electrical signals between neuronal...
spinaltracts (whitematter) surrounding central areas (graymatter) where most spinal neuronal cell bodies are located. The graymatter is organized into segments comprising sensory and motor neurons. Axons from spinal sensory neurons enter and axons from motor neurons leave the spinalcord via...
* Axon ends
* Dendrite beginnings
* The whitematter on each side of the cord is divided into funiculi.
* A ganglion is a clump of bodies outside of the CNS, while a nucleus is a clump of bodies in the CNS.
* The primary branch has incoming nerves and outgoing nerves. The...
is made of the axons of motor neurons carrying impulses from the spinalcord to muscles or glands. The cell bodies of these motor neurons, as mentioned previously, are in the graymatter of the spinalcord. When the two nerveroots merge, the spinalnerve thus formed is a mixed nerve.
cord at its superior end. It extends from the foramen magnum to the pons. Because of its location, all ascending and descending nerve fibers connecting the brain and the spinalcord must pass through it. Some of the nuclei in the graymatter relay ascending impulses to the other side of the brain stem...
structurally composed of two systems.
1. The Central Nervous System- brain and spinal chord.
2. The Peripheral Nervous System- all structures outside the CNS.
b. Components of the CNS
Brain- composed of the cerebral hemispheres, the cerebellum, and the brainstem.
1. GrayMatter- outer...
of the neurons, when they sense an injured neuron they turn into a special type of macrophage and destroy the cell
Ependymal cell: they line the central cavities of the brain and spinalcord form a permeable barrier
Oligodendrocytes: wrap and protect along thicker nerve fibers
In the PNS...
between whitematter and graymatter in the spinalcord? The major difference between white and graymatter within the spinalcord is that whitematter is primarily composed of myelinated nerve fibers, while the nerve fibers of graymatter are not
B. Cervical and lumbar spinalcord areas have...
The graymatter of the spinalcord consists mostly of cell bodies and dendrites. The surrounding whitematter is made up of bundles of interneuronal axons (tracts). Some tracts are ascending (carrying messages to the brain), others are descending (carrying messages from the brain). The spinal...
the brain. The functions of the spinalcord are conduction, locomotion, and reflexes.
9. What are the different parts of the spinalcord (include white and graymatter, and spinalnerves)?
Below is a diagram of the different parts of the spinalcord (your notes and power point gave me this...
* Intuition, emotion, artistic and musical skills
-Different areas of the cerebral cortex communicate:
* With each other
* With the brainstem and spinalcord
Fibers are usually myelinated and bundled into tracts
Types of tracts...
) carry proprioceptive inputs to the cerebellum
C) give rise to conscious experience of perception
D) are found in the dorsal columns of the spinalcord
8) The spinalcord has graymatter on the ________.
A) outside, whitematter on the inside, and a dorsal motor root
sheath (whitematter). Those without a myelin sheath are called unmyelinated (graymatter). Nerves are made of bunched together neurons. Nerves either carry impulses to the brain and spinalcord or carry messages from the brain and spinalcord. Central Nervous System Review page 165-166 in the...
spinalnerves, attached to the cord by paired roots
* Cervical and lumbar enlargements: sites where nerves serving the upper and lower limbs emerge
* Horse tail: collection of lumbar and sacral spinalnerveroots at the inferior end of the vertebral canal
Whitematter in the spinalcord...
12. What are the differences between horns, roots, tracts, and columns of the spinalcord?
Horns are areas of graymatter in the spinalcord. Roots are sections of spinalnerves just before they enter the spinalcord. Tracts are long projections of whitematter (axons) that...
. The rest of the large intestine and the pelvic organs are served by the sacral outflow, which arises from neurons located in the lateral graymatter of spinalcord segments S2–S4.
B. Sympathetic (Thoracolumbar) Division (pp. 530–534; Figs. 14.3, 14.5–14.6; Table 14.1)
1. The sympathetic...
brain stem in terms of neural transmission to and from the body
19a. How many spinalnerves are present in a normal human subject?
19b. Briefly describespinalnerves.
20a. Explain why the cervical enlargements of the spinalcord larger than the lumbar enlargement
20b. What is the lumbar...
-ah). Because ganglia are made up primarily of unmyelinated nerve cell bodies, they are masses of graymatter.
A tract is a bundle of fibers inside the CNS. Tracts can run long distances up and down the spinalcord. Tracts are also found in the brain and connect parts of the brain with each other...
Peripheral Nervous system
Autonomic nervous system
Central Nervous System
Consists of two masses
graymatter – inner mass and consists of nerve cell
whitematter – outer mass and consists of bundles of axon plus myelin sheaths...
: whitematter, grey matter, ventral roots and dorsal roots.
11. Identify the following structures of the brain: three types of meninges, convolutions (gyrus, sulcus, fissue), ventricles, cerebrospinal fluid, and blood-brain barrier.
12. Briefly describe the sequence of development (hindbrain...