A Survey Thesis

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Chapter 1
THE PROBLEM AND ITS SCOPE

Rationale
The teacher is an important person in the lives of children. Guided by the principal of the school, the teacher presents new knowledge to pupils, maintains discipline, plans learning programs, and selects learning materials such as books, objects, toys, and other instructional materials. Teaching is the responsibility of the teacher in a teaching and learning process. For this lesson, the teachers should emphasize the importance of instructional materials in conducting a lesson. Proper use of instructional materials can motivate the students in varied learning experiences as well as teaching-learning process. Preschool programs include work activities that are designed to teach children motor skills, mental and social-emotional learning experiences. By using recycled materials they may improve their motor skills effectively and they can imaginatively make their own designs. A teacher who directs learning activities encourages social and emotional responses from the children. Providing materials with which children can experiment allows them to discover new knowledge. Younger children pay more attention to lessons that involve showing and doing activities. Education becomes exciting and meaningful for children when the teachers have used the best possible resources and present them in good lessons. Instructional supports cannot teach by themselves. They need skillful way of teaching to deliver them effectively. For the pupils to gain from the presentation of the material, the teacher must see to it that it is base from their age level, intelligence and experience (Lardizabal, 1991). Teaching materials functions also as primary reference on how teachers should teach the learners. Due to the rise of modernization newer devices were developed and even growing faster. However, it does not mean to replace the traditional teaching materials. They are only teaching devices used to guide and assist teachers especially the new teachers who are fresh in the teaching profession. As a result, teaching becomes innovative and creative. Although, the effective use of learning resources is dependent on the expertise of the teacher. Improvement will largely depend on the creatively, resourcefulness and expertise of the teacher to use some instructional materials.

Theoretical Framework
This study is inspired by the following theories which serve as its framework: Jean Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development has had a strong impact on many aspects of education. His cognitive and development theory emphasizes the child’s need to master age-related tasks prior to move on to the next stage. The interplay between the child and the developing human being simply relies on his or her senses. Gradually, profiting from the manipulation of concrete objects, the child forms cognitive schema. Eventually, the adolescent learns to abandon this reliance on the concrete, and then abstract thinking that emerges (Bustos and Espiritu, 1996). This theory explains that a child will develop his mental capacity by passing into ladderized steps. The child can only move on once he/she learns the current step suitable at his/her age. Learning progression involves the development of our five senses. Bustos and Espiritu (1996) cited that Piaget’s Concrete Operation explains that while that child at this stage has developed a functional use of logic, he does not however attain the highest level of use of logical operations. His logic is still dependent upon concrete objects and present events in using schemes or problem-solving. This stage is also considered a transition between pre-logical thought and completely logical thought. The concrete operations stage corresponds to the elementary school years. By this time, children begin to learn symbol system and concepts. They begin to learn to add, subtract, classify order and apply certain principles or relationships between things or events, and apply rules to their...
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